Uhla lwamagama lwe-Gemology

abalone amaparele
ezinemibala amaparele yezobuciko ezivezwa i silwanyana ezidliwayo univalue elithatha shell endlebeni emise ezazaziswa kakhulu mama wezingane pearl lining yayo emibalabala. Lezi zitholakala America, New Zealand amanzi Japanese. Thukela spheroid, basuke ngokuvamile isicaba futhi endlebeni noma eliyindilinga tooth-
ukudla kwezimila
ukuthatha up (sib, ikhemikhali) noma ukuthatha e noma athole amandla kusukela zamandla akhishwa imisebe yalo (isib, ukukhanya)
ukumuncwa spectrum
iphethini imigca emnyama mpo, bands, noma izindawo (ukumuncwa ebanzi), wambona lapho ukukhanya kwelanga okuye kwadluliselwa noma ayeveza kusuka enetshe ohlakaziwe ku izingxenye zalo Spectral futhi lahlola usebenzisa into enjalo njengoba spectroscope.
Adamantine
bheka ucwebezela ngendlela ekhangayo
Adularescence
isici sheen bluish-white noma Milky (Schiller) moonstone
Allochromatic
lapho amalungu soguquko likhona kuphela njengoba okuphothula encane impahla gem, okokusebenza allochromatic (allo = nezinye; chroma = umbala)
Alluvium
ligama lelivamile ebisetshenziswa deposits rock doti (anesihlabathi deposits) eziye eyalo ogeleza amanzi kanye wabeka phansi ekusakazeni, emfuleni, isikhukhula imibhede plain noma lake.
amorphous
bheka non-crystalline
Anisotropic
bheka isibili yezokubona
Archimedes simiso
Archimedes simiso lithi uma umzimba egxilile uketshezi, khona-ke iphuzu lwaphezulu ketshezi emzimbeni ilingana isisindo ketshezi abangenamakhaya. (Ukuzimisela gravity okucacile ngumkhiqizi hydrostatic indlela enesisindo kusekelwe kulesi simiso)
amatshe Artificial
zinhlayiya umuntu-owenziwe engazungeziwe uzakwabo yemvelo (isib simulants diamond: titanate Sesithombe kanye YAG)
ukwelashwa Artificial
ngcono ukubukeka kwento by Ukushisa, staining, enamathela, impregnation, ngemisebe noma ngemisebe ye-laser imishini
namatshe ayigugu ohlanganisiwe
yimuphi gem sakhiwe izingxenye ezimbili noma ngaphezulu okuye waqinisa noma tho ndawonye ukwakha ngetshe elilodwa
Asterism
asterism kuba nomphumela reflection, ngokuvamile ezine noma eziyisithupha-rayed, kusukela zesivikelo sesifuba siqondile noma izimbotshana lunemicu e itshe eye wasika en cabochon ne inclusions kuthambekele parallel indiza nebhande
Aventurescence
reflection strong spangled ukukhanya amapuleti noma ishq yomunye amaminerali wahlanganisa itshe (isib, njengoba kubonakala aventurine ingilazi, asebenza ngebhethri aventurine, aventurine feldspar (sunstone))
Axis isimethri
esinye sezici wesimethri, i-eksisi eqonde ngqo wesimethri kuyinto line iplanethi ngokusebenzisa isikhungo a crystal, ngalo crystal kungenziwa liphenduka ukuze alethe ukubukeka efanayo 2, 3, 4 noma 6 izikhathi e umjikelezo owodwa ophelele (ngamanye amazwi , ubuso efanayo usesikhundleni efanayo, ngaphezu kwesikhathi esisodwa ashintshane ephelele)
amaparele Baroque
yigama elisebenza amapharele, ezemvelo kanye cultured, ibhamuza noma isimila,
okuyizinto njalo shape
basalt
basalt, ezivamile extrusive igneous rock, kuyinto omnyama, idwala okuncane ngokuyisisekelo lakhiwa abantu abaphakathi kuka feldspar emnyama futhi pyroxene (noma ngaphandle Olivine). Kunezindlela eziningana izinhlobo okuyinto ihlukaniswa kuye Ukushintshashintsha ukuthungwa, isakhiwo kanye nokuqukethwe nokumbiwa
amatshe Biaxial
ezinhlelweni ze-orthorhombic, monoclinic kanye ne-triclinic kunamazembe amathathu e-crystal anobude obuhlukile. Ukuhlehliswa okuphindwe kabili kuzokwenzeka ezindaweni eziningi, kepha kuzoba nama-axic optic (izinkomba ze-refraction eyodwa) ezahlukile ngokuma ngakunye kohlobo lwe-gem oluhlukile. amaminerali akulezi zinhlelo aziwa njenge-biaxial. (Kuhlelo lwe-orthorhombic izimbazo ze-optic zithambekele ngokulinganayo ku-'c' (i-axis eqondile yomugqa), ngenkathi ku-monoclinic nase-triclinic kungekho buhlobo obuqondile nama-crystal axes.)
Birefringence
(Okubhekiselwa kuzo nangokuthi kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona double / DR) birefringence inani kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona kabili amatshe anisotropic uzwakalise njengoba umehluko phakathi indices yezokubona at separation esiphezulu
Biwa amaparele
non-nucleated amapharele cultured (ngokuvamile amise okweqanda noma yezobuciko in shape eJapane) ayelinywa emhlabeni lweLake Biwa eJapane. I amaparele etshalwa ezinkulu namanzi izimbaza ngokufaka izicucu of isiphuku emzimbeni we izimbaza
angelasici
ligama lelivamile ukushiyeka lapho kuthinta ebusweni gem. A angelasici is ngokuvamile kubangelwa nezenzo zomuntu, noma kuyilapho gem kubizwa kokusikwa noma ngesikhathi kusathiwa esigqokwa ubucwebe. Imihuzuko, imigodi, futhi imihuzuko izinhlobo ezivame kakhulu of nasici
amaparele ibhamuza
amapharele okuyinto lihambisana ohlangothini olulodwa ungqimba nacreous owakhula phezu ecasulayo original ukuxhumana igobolondo silwanyana. Lapho amaparele enjalo ekhishwe, endaweni lapho kwaba nabo igobolondo kuyinto eziyisisekelo nacre. Ngakho kulolu hlangothi angenalutho is ngokuvamile esehlelembe off futhi abafihlwe nesibekandzaba
Brilliance
okhazimula kuyinto eliningi ingqikithi ukukhanya ngaphakathi ayeveza ukuthi ebuyiselwa iso kusukela amatshe. Okukanye it ungaboniswa njengoba ukukhazimula (impilo) a amatshe njengoba kunqunywa umthamo wokukhanya ayeveza emuva iso kusukela emuva sinezici itshe
Brittleness
brittleness uchazwa ngokuthi ubuthaka enetshe lapho naphezu ubulukhuni bayo, kwenza kube ekuthonyweni ukwa, umonakalo (isib, ukushisa waphatha zircon)
iso Cat sika
bheka chatoyancy
Center isimethri
esinye sezici wesimethri, isikhungo wesimethri khona lapho zonke ebusweni crystal ephelele akuhambisani okuphambene ubuso efanayo ngakolunye uhlangothi of the crystal (ie, bonke ubuso unesinye ubuso efanayo, okuphambene kanye parallel)
Chatoyancy
umphumela wokuboniswa kusuka ekufakweni kwe-fibrous inclus oriented oriented noma (iso lekati). Ukukhanya okukodwa kokukhanya kuvela ezinhlangothini ezifanele ukuya lapho kufakwe khona futhi kubonakala kahle ngaphansi komthombo owodwa wokukhanya ongaphezulu ngamatshe asikwe en cabochon
Chelsea umbala Rater
uyithuluzi ehlanganisa inhlanganisela umshini, kanjalo icanjwe ukuthi uvumela ezimbili kuphela izingxenye emincane spectrum ibonakale ngokusebenzisa kwalo: lawo red ejulile (eduze 690nm) kanye green yellow (eduze 570nm). Kuyasiza in okubonisa ukuba khona chrome noma ayibe e amagugu ezithile, ngoba ukuthola (chrome) udayi ngamatshe kanye ekwehlukaniseni ezinye izinto gem kusuka okusuke zabo ezivamile. Isikhumbuzi: Sebenzisa njengoba kuyisixwayiso kuphela. Proof buncike nolunye uvivinyo
Chromophore
(umenzeli wombala). Ingxenye yemolekyuli ebhekele umbala wenhlanganisela. Itholakala njengengxenye ebalulekile ekwakhiweni kwamakhemikhali ngamatshe e-idiochromatic noma njengokungcola kwe-accidentai ematsheni e-allochromatic
Clarity
igama elalisetshenziselwa ukuchaza yenkululeko kusuka yisiphi isici internai noma ukuzwe (inclusions) in a gem. The definition Lungase yandiswa yahlanganisa ebusweni yokulimala ekwakhiweni (nezici) lapho sicabangela grade ukucaciseleka itshe
Color bands
bands kalukhuni okucishe kufane nalokhu umbala umbonile phezu zinhlayiya noma ku izakhiwo internai yamatshe (kukhombisa ukukhula izigaba okubangelwa umehluko e etholakalayo amakhemikhali, uketshezi, izinga lokushisa, ingcindezi kanye nezinye izici)
Color in GEMS
umbono obonwayo wezinto lapho ukukhanya okumhlophe kungahlukaniswa khona (okubomvu, okusawolintshi, okuphuzi, okuluhlaza okotshani, okuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, oku-violet) kanye nokuzwa okububende okungatholakali emgqeni welanga. Umbala uchazwa nge-hue, saturation nangethoni. Umbala womzimba wetshe eliyigugu ususelwa ekukhanyeni okubonakala ngakho futhi ngenxa yokufakwa kobude obuthile bokukhanya obubonakalayo. Umbala ungabangelwa ukusabalalisa, ukuphazanyiswa kokukhanya ne-fluorescence
Color nokuklanywa
nokuklanywa umbala eba ngesikhathi ukukhula kwe-crystal ngenxa lokuhlala nesimiso sobuntu sokuhlalisana ngokuthula amanyela. Kwemibala (bands noma esishintshashintshayo) ngokuvamile ngimbone ukulandela crystal ubuso ekhona
izakhi Umbala
ukumuncwa okukhetha ukukhanya ngenxa yokuba khona izakhi soguquko (chrome, ayibe, ithusi, vanadium, manganese, insimbi, nickel, titanium) ngamatshe idiochromatic futhi allochromatic
Compact
icwecwe kunencazelo efanayo emikhulu futhi sisetshenziswa ikakhulukazi uma zinhlayiya khombisa akutholakalanga phawu izinhlayiya zesakhiwo (isib, fme-grained jadeite jade)
amatshe Composite
bheka amatshe wabuthela
Conch amaparele
pink amapharele: amapharele eyatholakala kusukela Conch omkhulu, a silwanyana univalve esitholakala Njengoba zikude nogu Florida, Gulf of California neMexico. Lezi amaparele ngokuvamile pink (orange pink noma white) ngombala futhi elinesimo ukuntula enamathela nacreous
Conchoidal
bheka ukwa
Xhumana nami tamorphic
the recrystallization of okuqukethwe amaminerali yamadwala nga pre-existing noma eduze zone contact ngenxa ebukhoneni magmas
Contact twin
uhlobo crystal twinning lapho abantu basesimweni contact kanye indiza ovamile (indiza twin). Izingxenye ezimbili crystal enjalo ukuze ahlobene ukuthi uma enye ingxenye liphenduka ngokusebenzisa 180 ° (a turn isigamu) mayelana i-eksisi eqonde ngqo (eksisi twin) khona-ke halves ezimbili engenza ukuma crystal ngabanye. I twin contact uziphilela amafomu amabili: contact single twin-lapho 2 neengcezu of a crystal ziqondile reverse ukuze uma isigamu esisodwa liphenduka 180 ° mayelana endizeni ujoyine, isimo crystal evamile is eyatholakala; okuphindaphindiwe, amawele-a polysynthetic noma lammelar uhlobo crystal twinning anabamemezeli uchungechunge contact amawele ngokuvamile in amapuleti mncane kakhulu. Lezi ahlelwe orientation obuhlukile komakhelwane babo ngokushesha (isib, njengoba atholakala corundum kanye feldspar). Bheka twins futhi interpenetrant
angle Critical
engela kwesifo lapho wokukhanya ukukhanya kwelanga besuka i optically luthe ukuqina ukuze medium lingandile is refracted at 90 ° evamile (ie, it Eziko ebusweni abezindaba ezimbili in contact). Qaphela: noma yimuphi ukwanda okwengeziwe ngokuthi lokhu engela kwesifo abangele ray refracted ukuze nginqande zingene medium original ukuthi ibingase bathobele imithetho of reflection (ie, wayeyoba ngokuphelele ngaphakathi ayeveza.)
Cryptocrystalline
(Mfihlo = kufihlwe). Igama elalisetshenziselwa ukuchaza impahla ehlanganisa i eziningi kangaka amakristalu ezincane ngokuvamile sub-ezincane azakhele mass ziqotho. I sub-ezincane crystal aggregate angase abonakale amorphous ngokubona okubonakala ngeso lenyama
Crystal
crystal siqinile iyunifomu amakhemikhali nge ngaphambilini internai isakhiwo atomic ifomu yangaphandle igudle ngendiza afanako wahlela (flat) ubuso
ifomu crystal
ifomu crystal siqukethe ail labo ubuso ezithathwa ngokufanayo ezihlobene izimbazo crystallographic (isib, isivivane, nezibhebhe, pinacoid, Dome)
crystal umkhuba
amabumbeko crystal (ifomu, plus surface izici) lapho amaminerali zivamise ukwenzeka zibizwa ngokuthi imikhuba yabo crystal
crystal inclusions
crystal inclusions ziyabonakala ekubeni emagumbini kuqhathaniswa emincane futhi imiphetho kuqhathaniswa iqonde. imiphetho engalingani kanye namafomu kancane babanjwa kuthiwa wahlangana ngenxa reabsorption we inclusions. (Crystal inclusions ngokuvamile lingaveli impumuzo ngokumelene background aphethe uma kubhekwa ngaphansi darkfield okukhanyisa. Bangaphinde ihlolwe ngokusebenzisa polars sawela.)
crystal wesimethri
crystal wesimethri libhekisela iphethini olinganiselayo isakhiwo yama-athomu. Kuyinto reproduction eqondile (uphinda ukubukeka) efanayo crystal ubuso (imiphetho, emagumbini) ukuthi ukhombise wayala ilungiselelo zangaphakathi izidakamizwa.
crystalline
crystalline indaba ncazelo mineral esiqinile ogama ion, ama-athomu, noma ama-molecule ahlelwe ngendlela ehlelekile. Ngo practice, leli gama livame ukusetshenziswa ukuze achaze izinto banezimfanelo isakhiwo ejwayelekile kanye izakhiwo ohlangothini kodwa akusho yangaphandle shape geometric
izimbazo Crystallographic
Yilawa imigqa ngamehlo engqondo nanini ubude ukugijima ngokusebenzisa
crystal ekahle tinkhombandlela ezithile ocacile maqondana wesimethri we crystal. They nquma maphakathi crystal at iphuzu ebizwa ngokuthi umsuka. (Ziyakwazi imizila okuvela okungase kulinganiswa amabanga isihlobo kanye ukuthambekela ubuso ahlukahlukene.)
amaparele cultured
amapharele cultured kukhona zokwakheka esibenyezelayo ngokuphelele noma ingxenye yaso zabangela
by ukungenela nhlangano yabantu singene ingaphakathi mollusk ithele. Lokhu kusebenza amapharele cultured ngabe kufakwe noma ingafakiwe i-nucleus
simila amaparele
iparele okuyinto eye kwakheka ngaphakathi emzimbeni silwanyana pearl futhi spheroid shape
iinthombe Dendritic
ukugcwaliswa kwesihlahla okufana nesihlahla noma okwe-moss (lapho ukufakwa kwento ehlukile kungafaka ikhefu - imvamisa i-iron oxide.)
Divitrify
ukuncisha ubukhazikhazi obunengilazi kanye ne-transluceny. (Endabeni yomkhiqizo wengilazi obizwa nge-meta jade - ngukwakhiwa kwe-crystallization etholakalayo)
Dichroscope
the dichroscope is ithuluzi elivumela imiphumela pleochroic gem namaminerali ukuze babonwe, imibala emibili noma shades of umbala ngesikhathi
umumo womsebenzi
the umumo womsebenzi yokukhanya kuwuhlobo ezikhethekile ukugxambukela sokukhanya lapho ukukhanya omhlophe bahlukana (waqhekeka) ku imibala yayo ingxenye njengoba ukukhanya kudlula a beso encane noma uma amaza okukhanya kudlule onqenqemeni phakathi izinto ngendlela ehlukile refracting (isib, play webala elimnyama njengoba sibonile kulokhu Itshe eliyigugu eziyigugu)
ukuhlakazwa
ukuhlakazwa ukwahlukaniswa (ukugqashuka) kokukhanya okumhlophe kungene kumbala we-spectral ngokukhipha (ukugoba ukukhanya) njengokukhanya kudlula ezindaweni ezimbili ezincikile. Emagugu kuvame ukubizwa ngokuthi 'umlilo'
yezokubona Double
i-anisotropic - amaminerali akhombisa izindawo ezi-optical direction (isib., amatshe ku-tetragonal, hexagonal trigonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic and triclinic systems)
spectrum kagesi
gama lisetshenziswe ngoba lonke uhla yamaza zamandla akhishwa imisebe yalo kusukela amagagasi omsakazo omude kunayo yonke ngokusebenzisa zishesha kakhulu ukuphelelwa yamaza cosmic
Elements of wesimethri
izakhi wesimethri kukhona indlela classifi-wezeFundo for the crystal izinhlelo eziyisikhombisa. Ziyakwazi amadivayisi ukuze sikwazi ukuhlala ngokwahlukana futhi uchaze izinhlobo ezahlukene crystal shape. Bahlanganisa indiza wesimethri, i-eksisi eqonde ngqo wesimethri futhi iyisikhungo wesimethri (bheka izincazelo ngaphansi Ukufakwa ohlwini ngabanye)
Eluvium
deposits eluvial kuqukathe rock doti (ngohlalwane) eye kwaluqeda (badlula out) edwaleni aphethe futhi lihlala situ (endaweni) ngaphandle ababhekene zokuhamba emifuleni
Emit
ukunikeza off noma out (isib, ukukhanya)
Enantiomorphism
isakhiwo yamangqamuzana asebenza ngebhethri okuyinto kuphakamisa kwesokunxele bese kwesokudla isandla Kuvunguza ukukhula asebenza ngebhethri, futhi nokwehlukana yayo yindilinga. (Qaphela: Ukubekwa sobuso ezincane auxillary okuyizinto njalo ebonakalayo yangaphandle losizo ukuhlonza handedness kwesokunxele noma kwesokudla crystal)
Enhancement
bheka ukwelashwa yokufakelwa
inclusions Epigenetic
post inclusions wesimanje. Labo okwenzeka ngemva kokwakhiwa crystal impi. Lezi zihlanganisa nezinhlobo ezahlukene emifantwini futhi inclusions nokumbiwa ezakhiwe exsolution (isib, rutile usilika e corundum); ingasaphathwa amafutha / opticon, njll, izinsalela e ukwa wagcwalisa amagugu.
Exsolution inclusions
bheka exsolved
Exsolved
the unmixing amaminerali. Ezinye ngazimbili amaminerali yakha izixazululo esiqinile okushisa aphakeme futhi babe engazinzile okushisa aphansi. Lapho lezi kuphole kancane kungenzeka omunye amaminerali baphoqwe ukuthi lapho isakhiwo aphethe epholisa futhi izivumelwano, ngokoqobo ecindezela ukungcola ku izikhala ezikhona okunemali ebekelwe zona bakuphi crystallize (isib, rutile inaliti (usilika) e corundum)
Ukuqothulwa
ukuqothulwa ukungabikho yokukhanya kokubuyela iso. Lokhu kubangela itshe ukuba avele amnyama abanako billiance
amagama isici
GEMS faceted abe umqhele (ingxenye phezulu ngenhla kwebhande), itafula (the isici maphakathi umqhele), ibhande (isigaba zamatshe azungezwe omkhulu kunabo noma umngcele yangaphandle), nendawo (ingxenye engezansi ngezansi ibhande ). Zonke ezinye izici zingase ubheka ubungako bawo, imvamisa noma ngisho ukhona kuncike isitayela cutting esetshenziswa. Ngokwesibonelo, ngo isinyathelo-ukusika standard (Emerald ukunquma) amatshe the culet (isici ezincane phansi inkundla) indawo a line keel (ujenga nokwelula kanye maphakathi phansi inkundla)
cleavage False
bheka KUBUHLUNGU kakhulu
Feather iinthombe
indiza ngomzuzu izimbotshana ngokuvamile bavele njengezinto eziningi izigaba emihle induku efana intercommunicating iziteshi (ngokuvamile liquid ugcwale).
lunemicu
elethiwa impahla lapho zinhlayiya abazobhekela kukhona inaliti emise (isib, asbestos, nephrite jade)
inclusions Fingerprint
lezi zingase futhi okungase kwaziwe njengoba ukuphulukiswa izimpaphe kuqukathe interconnecting amanethiwekhi iziteshi ugcwale liquid-futhi amaconsi sifana zeminwe. Ngokuvamile umphumela izixazululo yezimbiwa kancane kancane gqwa ibe ufa pre-ekhona kwi-crystal kakade kwakhiwa, futhi ephulukisa ZaseLaki. Lezi ezinye simo lapho izici ezinjalo zabanye kungakuqinisa kwenzeke ngesikhathi ukwelashwa ukushisa ukushisa. Izigxivizo zeminwe zijwayelekile ngeyamarubi baphathwa
Qeda
sekugcineni libhekisela izinga faceting we gem futhi ahlulelwe yibo degree of akhanye, njalo, futhi flatness of isici ngasinye
Fluorescence
fluorescence kuyinto ekushayweni okukhanya okubonakalayo by ayigugu ukuthi baye bathola radiations ezibonwayo kumbe ezingabonwayo of inamandla (energy ephakeme)
ukwa
ukwa kuyinto chip okungajwayelekile noma ikhefu itshe
gem
itshe eliyigugu kwanoma yiluphi uhlobo, asikwe futhi yona-iphucuziwe for nomhlobiso (pearl kuyinto okuhlukile esiphawulekayo esilethwa nokufuneka sakamuva). A gem by ncazelo yilowo anazo ubuhle, ukuqina kanye rarity
Glass
ingilazi Leligama lisetshenziswa izinto ezingafaneleki adalwe ukuncibilika kanye nokupholisa ngokushesha izinto amaminerali, okuphumela ekwakhiweni material amorphous. Glass kungaba yokufakelwa (manmade, ngezinye izikhathi ibizwa ngokuthi unama) noma ngaphezulu kuyaqabukela, isib zemvelo, obsidian (ingilazi yentaba-mlilo), tektites (okucatshangwa ukuthi imikhiqizo meteoric splash)
granite
granite kuyinto ukukhanya anemibala, amaqhafuqhafu-grained igneous awayiphazamisi rock owakhiwa asebenza ngebhethri, feldspar futhi mica
Growth nisishiye siboshwé ngebhande
bands lighter mnyama imigqa iqonde ucondze kutsi ukulandela iphethini isakhi yezimbiwa
Habit
ijamo isici lapho mineral ngokuvamile kwenzeka. Habit hhayi nje ihlanganisa ifomu yangaphandle evame bamukela amaminerali kodwa ejwayelekile ngaphandle imiphumela kanye
Hackly
bheka ukwa
Halo iinthombe
crystal iinthombe zizungezwe ufa ukucindezeleka (s). Lezi zingase futhi ibukeke uvemvane namaphiko amabili lovela crystal yayihlanganisa (okuvamise zircon)
ubulukhuni
ubulukhuni amandla amaminerali okufanele amelane nokunwaya (ukuhuzuka). Bheka nesilinganiso sikaMoh
Ukwelapha imifantu
waphulukisa imifantu (imifantu noma cleavages) lapho uketshezi wangena break kanye crystal lakhula babuyelane. Ngokuvamile izingxenye ezithize uketshezi babambeke izimbotshana neziteshi ebangela feathery noma zeminwe-like amaphethini (ngezinye izikhathi iron zigcwele)
Hue
i-hue isho igama lombala uqobo lwayo: imizwa emsulwa yokubukeka kokubomvu, okusawolintshi, okuphuzi, okuluhlaza okotshani, okuluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, oku-violet nokuhlukahluka kwalokhu. I-Hue ibuye ibhekise ekuzweleni okububende (phakathi kokubomvu ne-violet), okungatholakali kububanzi belanga
ezingaphansi kolwandle
amadwala babeka phansi, ngokuvamile emabangeni yokugcina sokuhlanganiswa igneous kusukela magma ocebile amanzi kanye nezinye izinto oluyingozi. Ngemithambo ezingaphansi kolwandle yezimbiwa ocebile izixazululo lemifanekiso ngokusebenzisa izikhala kanye emifantwini yamadwala sedimentary futhi ifomu crystal izimbotshana ujenga edwaleni
Idiochromatic
lapho amalungu soguquko kuyinto abazobhekela ezibalulekile impahla gem, indaba gem kuyinto idiochromatic (idio = self, chroma = umbala)
ukucwiliswa cell
ingilazi cell ezincane eliqukethe uketshezi ezifanele. Isimiso okusekelwe kuso usebenzisa i cell ukucwiliswa wukuthi index yezokubona ketshezi iwukuba zamatshe, yilapho kuyoba lula nakakhulu ukubona itshe. Cishe noma yiluphi uketshezi kungekho nto enemibala emihle, ngisho namanzi, uyogenca surface reflection, futhi wenze inclusions nekwehlwaya lula kakhulu
In situ
impahla nazo isikhundla lapho ekuqaleni kwakhiwa noma zibekwe kuthiwa itholakala situ (ngokwezwi nezwi endaweni)
Ukufakwa
ligama lelivamile yisiphi isici noma ukuzwe kungakapheli gem. INCLUSIONS zingahlukaniswa zibe izinhlobo ezintathu ezahlukene: esiqinile-kokubili crystalline (isib, zircon e isafire) noma non-crystalline (isib, ingilazi bemvelo peridot) zingenzeka. Izimbotshana-lezi bangase bafinyelele ngesikhathi aphethe amagugu ukukhula (inclusions primary), noma kamuva (inclusions secondary). Kuphakathi uhlobo nigcwaliswe iyiphi inhlanganisela liquid, igesi kanye noma esiqinile. Labo nge izigaba ezimbili noma ngaphezulu ngokuthi multiphase. Growth izenzakalo-umbala nokuklanywa futhi twinning kukhona kokubili izibonelo sokukhula imihlola
Isikhala seso
izindlela infrared ngezansi obomvu kanye le uhla emisebeni iqala nge yamaza ukuthi awasenaso ukwedlula 700nm yokukhanya obomvu. amaza okushisa kubizwa ngokuthi ukushisa ngoba uveza umuzwa imfudumalo lapho kugadla skip yethu
impambaniso
lapho imisebe ababili bebehamba endleleni efanayo, kodwa out of isigaba (isinyathelo), Okusizayo aphazamise komunye nomunye okubangela noma nezimila ezisengozini yokuqothulwa Imininingwane wokukhanya noma pre-ukubusa eyodwa noma ngaphezulu imibala
impambaniso izibalo
Yilezi imiphumela optical ukubonakala ngesikhathi double amaminerali yezokubona zibhekwa ngokusebenzisa ubuso okufanayo convergent ugongolo okukhanya. They ukukhokhela ukwaziswa okuwusizo ngokuphathelene komshini we itshe
twins Interpenetrant
uhlobo crystal twinning lapho abantu ababili ukuze likhule ndawonye sengathi ukuba bakwazi ukungena komunye nomunye (ngokuvamile ikhiqiza cross noma inkanyezi amatshe)
Iridescence
iridescence noma ukudlala umbala lichaza umbala nofana kweemfundo imibala ezivezwa isiphazamiso noma umumo womsebenzi lapho ukukhanya ibonakala kungaba amafilimu mncane noma kusukela isakhiwo eliyingqayizivele Itshe Eliyigugu eziyigugu
replacement Isomorphous
ngokufaka esikhundleni womunye element amakhemikhali ukuze kutholakale enye the valency ezifanayo ukubunjwa amakhemikhali. Lokhu kuphumela ukuhluka kabanzi Izakhiwo of amalungu yochungechunge. Valency: efanayo amakhemikhali ubunjalo kanye engaba ionic
Isotropic
bheka singly yezokubona
Keshi amaparele cultured
amaparele wamanzi angenasawoti angaveli emvelo akha amafolishi lapho ebuyiselwa emanzini ngemuva kokususwa kwesitshalo samaparele angenalutho. Lokhu akufanele kudidaniswe ne-pearis seed pearis evame ukuba mincane kakhulu. Amanzi angenasawoti `keshi 'abizwa nje kuphela ngoba nawo awakhuliswa kusuka enhlanganweni yokufakelwa. Kwesinye isikhathi kubhekiswa njengamaparele 'angenambewu' ukwenza umehluko non-nucleated. Bheka futhi amaparele eBiwa
Keshi amaparele (zasolwandle)
amaJapan abiza imbewu yamaparele `keshi '(poppies). Ukuhlangana lapha kuphakathi kosayizi omncane wembewu ye-poppy kanye namaparele amancane kakhulu enziwe ngokwemvelo
Konoscope
a polariscope eline lens ngokuqinile convergent esiza lula ukubukela impambaniso izibalo
Lamellae inclusions
okubangelwa twinning polysynthetic. Can kuvele njengamadiski amakhethini noma obala inhlanzi-line. Bangase bavele ukuhlangana engele (isib, in corundum lapho tinkhombandlela ukuhlangana)
nenhlabathi Lateritic
emhlabathini impahla (yakhiwa rock izingcezwana kanye nohlaza) okuyinto ngokuyinhloko lisuselwa basait ukubola (a grained omnyama edwaleni esihle yentaba-mlilo okunothe kanye magnesium, okuyinto evulekile kakhulu imiphumela weathering yamakhemikhali lapho kushisa bhé)
Luminescence
igama elijwayelekile lokunikezwa kokukhanya okubandayo okubonakalayo ngento ethile lapho kuthola amandla ensalela ngandlela thile. Izimiso ezinhlanu zokukhanya kwe-luminescent yilezi: i-chemi-luminescence (umphumela wokushintsha kwamakhemikhali), i-tribo-luminescence (ekhishwa ukungqubuzana), i-thermo-luminescence (ekhiqizwa ukushisa), i-photo¬luminescence (eyenziwe ngemisebe ebonakalayo noma engabonakali yamandla aphezulu / amafushane wavelength) kanye ne-cathodoluminescence (imiphumela evela ekuzijabuliseni ngogongolo lwe-electron ekamelweni elingenalutho)
ucwebezela ngendlela ekhangayo
ayebuthaka iyona nangohlobo lwezinto ukukhanya elisobala ebusweni itshe. Le migomo elandelayo ukuchaza amatshe lusters: metallic: ayebuthaka okusezingeni olwaboniswa opaque metallic namaminerali. adamantine: high surface reflectivity. Vitreous: ayebuthaka glass-like ejwayelekile seningi amagugu. anenhlaka: ayebuthaka ejwayelekile of inhlaka (soft nge RI ongaphakeme). waxy: pheze matte surface (ngezinye izikhathi esibizwa okunamafutha). okunamafutha: kancane oily looking esukela kusakazeka ukukhanya by surface microscopically rough. esibenyezelayo: ayebuthaka of pearl / mama wezingane pearl. silky: ayebuthaka lunemicu kasilika
Mabe (cultured) amaparele
esiyinhlanganisela ibhamuza cultured amaparele lapho nucleus original liye lasuswa futhi kwafakwa ngumuntu bead ezincane waqinisa e, futhi isiqeshana ophahleni olungaphakathi emise kumama ka-pearl ethe njo base yayo ukumboza indawo entula nacre
Magma
oncibilikisiwe (liquid) rock
oluthambile
izindlela oluthambile ngokuba abazokwazi enwetshiwe noma uthonywe eshaya ngesando noma ingcindezi rollers
Man-ezenziwe
umkhiqizo man-made by ncazelo ungomunye esiye kuhlelwe laboratory. (Synthesize ukubeka ndawonye noma ukuhlanganisa tincenye ibe lonke eziyinkimbinkimbi). Umphumela ungase ube zokwenziwa amatshe (ie, lowo inomfuziselo wemvelo) noma i amatshe yokufakelwa (ie, lowo alinaso uzakwabo wemvelo)
Massive
igama elalisetshenziselwa ukuchaza impahla possesses esiqondile isakhiwo internai a crystal, kodwa alibonisi ifomu kwangaphandle weJiyomethri. Lokhu kungenziwa akhiwa eyodwa (isib, wavuka asebenza ngebhethri) noma ngaphezulu crystal amayunithi (isib, jadeite)
Mettalic
bheka ucwebezela ngendlela ekhangayo
Metamict
lisetshenziselwa izinto okuyinto uye wahlupheka ikhefu-phansi kusuka crystalline esimweni ngokwengxenye amorphous; ezivamile amaminerali equkethe materials radioactive (isib, uhlobo ongaphakeme zircon)
rocks Metamorphic
metamorphic (ngokwezwi nezwi, washintsha in ifomu) amadwala akhiwa emadwaleni nga pre-existing ngokuyinhloko ngenxa yesenzo ingcindezi, ukushisa kanye / noma ukwethulwa amasha ikhemikhali
Carat Metric (CT)
i-carric metric eyodwa = ingxenye yesihlanu yegremu (0.20gr) noma ama-milligram angama-200 (mg). I-metric carat iyunithi yesisindo samatshe ayigugu e-ail kanye namaparele akhulile. Isisindo sivezwa ezindaweni ezimbili zamadesimali futhi amadesimali avame ukubizwa ngokukhululekile ngokuthi 'amaphuzu', okungukuthi, i-metric carat engu-1 = amaphuzu ayi-100
isibonakhulu
ithuluzi optical ehlanganisa inhlanganisela lens oveza isithombe okhulisiwe bento. Abanye ukusetshenziswa ngendlela ebaluleke nakakhulu kokukhulisa: iinthombe isifundo (zemvelo vs. ezenziwe umuntu, mode kumiswa / crystal ukukhula); ngaphandle luhlolo (izinga ukunquma (wesimethri), sula (izimo sinezici, firemarks); bangabonwa yamatshe esiyinhlanganisela; ukuhlonza zokwelapha yokufakelwa; bona bakha ukuba sengozini yokutheleleka umonakalo (isib, ebukhoneni ukwa kanye / noma cleavage); bona Ukubuyelela (SR vs .UDkt, futhi angase abonise nenani birefringence)
Mineral
mineral kuyinto zemvelo ikhemikhali wezinto abanesimo ukubunjwa amakhemikhali kanye Izakhiwo okuyizinto njalo ngaphakathi kwemingcele emincane. isakhiwo Its kuvamise crystalline
ukukhanya monochromatic
ukukhanya monochromatic ungukukhanya of nombono owodwa kuphela. Indinganiso yellow ukukhanya monochromatic esetshenziselwa Refractometer izilinganiso lisuselwa isibani sodium ngentukuthelo. Lokhu empeleni siqukethe amabili eduze kakhulu zehlukaniswe ukuphuma imigqa, value ogama asho kuyinto 589.3nm
inclusions Multiphase
inclusions engaqukatha liquid kanye negesi kanye / noma zinhlayiya
Nacre
a uketshezi ezivezwa kuye isiphuku sakhe sokuthunjwa ezinye mollusk esiyingxenye izingqimba enhlobonhlobo kokubili pearl kanye mama wezingane pearl Ingaphakathi igobolondo silwanyana. Nacre siqukethe carbonate crystalline lime futhi i-conchiolin izinto eziphilayo okuthiwa i
Namometers (NM)
yokukala ezinamaza emifushane spectrum kagesi (zamandla akhishwa imisebe yalo). 1 nanometer = 1 millioneth ingxenye ethile angu (1 / 1,000,000 NM) isib, okukhanya okubonakalayo ingena phakathi 700nm (obomvu) kanye 400nm (violet)
Imi Native
lisetshenziselwa for isitayela ukunquma esakhethwa ukuba sisetshenziswe esiphezulu isisindo nokugcinwa. Lezi Imi amatshe obukhulu bube ngamadokodo ezinkulu ngokuvamile zidinga
recutting ukuba siwufinyelele ngezabelo kangcono
crystal Negative
izimbotshana ngaphakathi gem kokuba simise crystalline. Lezi izimbotshana kwadalwa ngesikhathi ezindaweni ezithile kwakhula ngesilinganiso ngokushesha kunezinye izindawo, ukwakha futhi befaka zintula noma lapho original crystal iinthombe iye yahlakazeka out (zinhlayiya negative ngokuvamile babonakala alula kakhulu kunomoya womkhosi wawo ngaphansi darkfield okukhanyisa)
iinthombe Negative
a iinthombe engakhi engase ibe igesi noma uketshezi agcwaliswe ngamanzi noma aqukethe a iinthombe encane esiqinile (bheka crystal futhi negative)
Ukufundwa Negative
uma itshe ngaphansi kovivinyo on a refractometer ine R.1 ngenhla uhla yomculo, akukho onqenqemeni shadow iyobonakala (ngaphandle kokuthi ketshezi contact)
Non-crystalline
amaminerali nezinye izinto kuthiwa non-crystalline noma amorphous (ngokwezwi nezwi, ngaphandle ifomu) lapho uJack ehlelekile isakhiwo internai atomic ukubukeka yangaphandle geometrically avamile (isib, izinto amaminerali, itshe eliyigugu namabhodlela, kanye materials organic)
ukukhanya Non-white
ukukhanya non-white (ie, anemibala) uchazwa mayelana imibala yayo (ie, umbala nombono salo pre-eliphawuleka ngaso), ukugcwaliswa (ukujula noma ngezikhwepha umbala eliphawuleka ngaso) kanye nephimbo (umthunzi-ukukhanya emnyama)
Normal
e yokukhanya ail engele kukhona ngesilinganiso evamile, i line ngengqondo esitholakala encwadini engele kwesokudla (90 iphuzu lapho ray ushaya ebusweni hhayi ebusweni uqobo
optic-eksisi eqonde ngqo
a isiqondiso kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona single ngaphakathi crystal ngenye isibili yezokubona is njengenhlangano e-eksisi optic aziwa
uhlamvu optic
bheka nature optic
Optic figure sphere
indilinga ingilazi zifakwa induku iDemo okuyinto ethatha njengoba lens ushintsha uba yileli ukusiza ukuxazulula impambaniso amaphethini wambona ahambe e-eksisi optic material anisotropic
optic nature
nature optic a amaminerali: amaminerali zihlukaniswe uniaxial, biaxial futhi isotropic (uhlamvu optic). amaminerali Uniaxial futhi biaxial zibuye selihlukene laba labo okuyizinto optically emihle futhi nalabo okuyizinto optically negative (uphawu optic)
optic uphawu
bheka nature optic
kwabantu optical
inhlanganiso optical impahla eyinkimbinkimbi okuyinto demonstates ngokwayo ukwehlisa ijubane lokukhanya. (Bheka futhi kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona)
imikhiqizo Organic
imikhiqizo organic kukhona labo materials ezivezwa umsebenzi eziphilayo
Orient (of pearl)
the enhlobonhlobo ebusweni sheen gem pearl nonina-of-pearl. It is okubangelwa ukuphazamiseka kwe yokukhanya at films mncane (amapuleti ezondile ungqimba nacreous) nangokusebenzisa umumo womsebenzi ukusuka emaceleni esihle amapuleti
amaparele Oriental
nokusetshenziswa kwaleli gama ingeyabasebenzisi echaza amaparele zemvelo ezitholakala emanzini sait mollusk we Gulf. Nokho, kuye kwaba yilapho jikelele yohwebo inkambiso ekilasini ail engxubeni yamanzi anosawoti amapharele angokwemvelo njengesizathu Oriental
KUBUHLUNGU kakhulu
KUBUHLUNGU kakhulu kuyinto zokugwema ukuthi kwenzeka kanye indiza lobuthakathaka, kunokuba kanye nezindiza ezinemishini yokuthwebula ephambili zifana kuya crystal ubuso, noma kungenzeka
crystal ubhekene, njengasezulwini cleavage (it yaziwa nangokuthi cleavage bamanga)
pearl okusanhlamvu
okusanhlamvu pearl yilona unit standard for pearl enesisindo 1 wokusanhlamvu = 0.25 Carat (1 CT = 4grains)
amaparele
amapharele kukhona izinto ezakhiwe imvelo ethakwa ngengozi ngaphandle kosizo yimuphi nhlangano yabantu, emaqaqasini mollusk. Basuke eyakhiwa nemiyo organic (a scleroprotein ogama lakhe conchiolin) kanye calcium carbonate (ngokuvamile ngesimo aragonite) ahlelwe izingqimba eyindilinga, lo angaphandle zazo lingama nacreous
Pearly
bheka ucwebezela ngendlela ekhangayo
Pegmatites
igneous rock inzuzo emaholo evame equkethe amaminerali ezingavamile, kuhlanganise amakristalu elikhulu ayigugu (isib, ibherule *, chrysoberyl, feldspar, asebenza ngebhethri, spessartite garnet)
Phosphorescence
phosphorescence empeleni ilibele fluorescence (ie, kuba ingemuva). It is ekushayweni waqhubeka okukhanya okubonakalayo emva umthombo emisebeni yokuvuselela liphelile
Photoluminescence
photoluminescence yigama collective for fluorescence kanye phosphorescence. Kuyinto umphumela ezaboniswa izinto ezithile ekukhiqizeni okukhanya okubonakalayo phezu ekuvezweni short nombono emisebeni engenamandla kakhulu (sib: radiations kagesi in the ebonakalayo (blue), ultraviolet x-ray ingxenye spectrum)
obukhomba
izinhlayiya ezincane ezitholakala njengoba inclusions. Lapho lezi zikhona izinombolo ezinkulu zingase yachazwa njengetshe elincane ifu obala itshe kungase ukuphazamiseka kwengqondo
placer deposits
placer deposits kuqukathe ebusweni lokuhlala namaminerali abalulekile ephezulu gravity ethize (ukuqina) okuye ezakhiwe weathering kwedwala umzali, ezimweni eziningi, kamuva yabizwa eyalo umfudlana noma wave isenzo
Plane isimethri
esinye sezici wesimethri; indiza wesimethri kundiza ngengqondo lapho sihlukanisa nomzimba ibe izingxenye ezimbili ukuze ingxenye ngayinye is the ezaziqukethwe (isibuko) umfanekiso enye ingxenye (ie, ingxenye ngayinye iyona ngqo ephambene umfuziselo nezinye)
Plastics
ligama lelivamile eziningi organic izinto ezenziwe umuntu (ngokuvamile ngokuthi i-polymer based resin) okungase extruded noma silolongwe ukushisa kanye / noma ingcindezi
Play of umbala
play term umbala lichaza uchungechunge imibala kubonakala kahle lapho ukukhanya ibonakala kusukela amafilimu mncane noma kusukela ubunye isakhiwo eheleni efana Itshe Eliyigugu eziyigugu. It is ezivezwa umumo womsebenzi (kuphulwa up yokukhanya abamhlophe imibala yayo ingxenye njengoba ukukhanya kudlula a beso encane) elisho ezikhethekile ukugxambukela wokukhanya
Pleochroism
pleochroism (ngokwezwi nezwi, abaningi anemibala) leli gama jikelele lisetshenziselwa ukuchaza imibala ehlukene ohlangothini lapho kungabonakala amatshe athile esinombala esehlukanisa ukukhanya (ie, basuke isibili refracting) ngenxa crystal isakhiwo sabo sangaphakathi. Kuhlanganisa dichroism (ezimbili ezinemibala) kanye trichroism (ezintathu ezinemibala)
Polariscope
the polariscope kuyinto ithuluzi ehlanganisa izilinganiso ezingamakhulu amabili ukwenziwa indiza lihlukaniswe ukukhanya wahlela nge isigaba ligijima phakathi kwabo. Uhlolo Kudivayisi kuphela yini noma cha impahla kuyinto singly noma efe kabili yezokubona
Polariscope yabangela ukusabela okuhlukahlukene
singly yezokubona-mabhodi ehlala amnyama kuyo 360 ° baphendukela. Uma into oyifundayo ngaphansi umthwalo internai kungase ibonise ezingasadingeki (amanga) kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona double (ADR), ngokuvamile ngesimo bands mihlobiso noma nezimagqabhagqabha okungajwayelekile. Double yezokubona-amatshe elaqheshulwa crystal olulodwa abanomthwalo emine ukukhanya futhi ezine izikhundla olumnyama. Crystalline lokubolekwa noma zazihlanganisa ayehlome DR impahla zingavela ail ukukhanya kuyo 360 ° baphendukela. Impambaniso figure-in the case of DR impahla, uma izimo baqinisile futhi i figure Impambaniso ungayibona kuhle kuqashelwe, kungenzeka ukuthola ukuthi itshe uniaxial noma biaxial. (Uphawu-once optic sebemtholile sibalo impambaniso, kuba ke kungenzeka ukuba sinqume ukuthi itshe emihle noma emibi ngosizo
amapuleti accessory ye ihlinzekwa ngokukhethekile ukuthi injongo)
Polycrystalline
amaminerali okuyizinto lokubolekwa amakristalu encane ngokuthi polycrystalline. Lezi zinhlayiya ezincane Kuyabonakala besebenzisa kokukhulisa, futhi ngezinye izikhathi by iso yedwa (isib, cishe ail jadeite jade)
twins Polysynthetic
bheka twins lammelar
Potch (Itshe Eliyigugu ezivamile)
impahla Milky entula play umbala, eyakhiwa silica sphere yobukhulu ukungalingani ngaleyo ndlela ebangela ukukhanya zihlakazekile kunokuba diffracted
inclusions Protogenetic
ukufakwa okuvele kukhona: lezo ezazikhona ngaphambi kokuthi i-crystal host ziqale ukwakheka futhi zamuncwa 'zenziwe zalungiswa' kokugcina (isb. izinhlayiya eziqinile namakristalu amancane. Zivame ukusakazwa ngokungajwayelekile kuyo yonke indawo futhi azivamile ukuhlobene ne-crystal's host isakhiwo
Pseudomorph
i-pseudomorph (ifomu lamanga) yiminerali ethatha isimo (isimo) sesinye isimbiwa (noma into ephilayo) ngenxa yokushisa kanye / noma ingcindezi noma inqubo yamakhemikhali, isib. iso lehlosi (ukufaka i-quartz esikhundleni se-crocidolite, i-asbestos mineral); i-agate yezinkuni (ukushintshwa kwe-quartz ngokhuni)
reflection
okuboniswayo kungukubuya kwendawo (kungaba i-internai noma yangaphandle) kokunye ukukhanya okuwela kuleyo ndawo. Bheka nemithetho kaSnell
kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona
Ukubuyisela emuva inguquko ohlangothini lapho ukukhanya kuhamba khona lapho kudlula kusuka komunye wemidiya kuye komunye wokuqina okuhlukile kwe-optical (ngaphandle kwalapho kugadla ubuso obujwayelekile bezindaba ezimbili ngo-90 °). Njengoba ukukhanya kudlula kusuka kokungajwayelekile kuya kokuminyene kakhulu (isb., Kusuka emoyeni kuye etsheni) kugobile kuye kokujwayelekile, ngakolunye uhlangothi njengoba kudlula kusuka kokukhulu kuya kokuphakathi okungajwayelekile kubheke kude nokujwayelekile. Ubuningi be-Optical impahla eyinkimbinkimbi ekhombisa ukwehla kokukhanya. Bheka nemithetho kaSnell
Inkomba yezokubona (RI)
the RI kuyinto isilinganiso elula ngokuqhathanisa ngejubane lokukhanya emoyeni ngejubane lokukhanya in a medium inikezwe. I esezingeni esetshenziswa sokulinganisa Inkomba yezokubona kuyinto emoyeni (amaza cleaner); kanjalo RI emoyeni ngokweqile kubhekwa 1.00
metamorphic Regional
(700 ° -2000 ° C) the recrystallization of okuqukethwe amaminerali yamadwala nga pre-existing at okushisa anda futhi ucindezelekile
kwabantu Isihlobo
Bona gravity ethize (SG)
yamaza residual
yamaza yezinsalela yilawo yamaza hhayi amuncwa impahla obuhlanganisa ukuba asinike umbala perc-eived bento
anenhlaka
Bona ucwebezela ngendlela ekhangayo
Rock
idwala kwakhiwa izinhlayiya yezimbiwa lapho usukhulile noma baye abumbene by yezinqubo zamakhemikhali noma sasondelana ndawonye ukushisa noma ingcindezi
Gcwalisa
libhekisela izinga noma ukujula umbala kubonwe okunje kwa-ukubaniza brilliancy yamatshe esobala faceted
Schiller
Bona sheen
Scintillation
ukucwazimula; nokunikezwa off lemifisha, ukukhanya okukhulu
Sectile
sectile libhekisela materials amandla kokuba axetshuliwe ngokuveza ummese nge cut bushelelezi
rocks sedimentary
lawo akhiwa ngokwakhiwa kwezinto (amasele) ezaqhamuka ekuwohlokeni komzimba namakhemikhali kwamadwala asevele ekhona ebusweni bomhlaba
Seed amaparele
amapharele ezincane kakhulu (ngaphansi kuka v. okusanhlamvu / ngu. 2mm) ukuthi ngokuvamile kwakheka izicubu zomzimba ezithambile we silwanyana ngenxa ye ayehlasela zesihlabathi, amaqanda khulula ezintantayo, izimuncagazi noma kweminye imizimba angaphandle. Seed amaparele kukhona ngokuvamile okungamukelekile flat, kodwa lapho ezingavamile abathandekayo nxazonke zitholakala, bahlukene out for ukusetshenziswa ubucwebe. Bheka futhi Keshi amaparele
ukumuncwa okukhethwayo
ukumuncwa abakhethayo Amandla okukhanya ukucindezelwa noma ukumuncwa yamaza ezithile Ukudlula ekukhanyeni ngokusebenzisa into ethile noma ayeveza off ubuso bayo. Umbala imiphumela impahla kusukela asele (residual) yamaza ukuthi afinyelele iso
Sheen (noma Schiller)
sheen kuyinto anombala ocwazimulayo noma ngokukhukhumala kwentamo (welulele) reflection umphumela okubangelwa ukukhanya okubonakaliswa kusukela inclusions noma izici zokwakheka emiSebenzini itshe. Igama elithi kuhlanganisa chatoyancy, asterism, adularescence, aventurescence, opalescence, iridescence (labrodrescence kanye play umbala Itshe Eliyigugu)
Silk (iinthombe)
uchungechunge izinaliti esihle parallel (njalo rutile)
yezokubona Single
okubhekiselwa kuzo nangokuthi isotropic. namaminerali adingwa abonise ezifanayo kodwa ngesikhathi esifanayo optical ndlela ail (isib, amatshe ohlelweni cubic kanye material amorphous)
Imithetho Snell sika of kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona
lapho ray ukukhanya isuka komunye medium iye kolunye kukhona isilinganiso esiqondile phakathi sine we engela kwesifo kanye sine engela of kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona. I ray senzakalo, ray refracted kanye evamile (ngilungele kwesifo) kukhona ail indiza efanayo. Isilinganiso njalo phakathi engela kwesifo kanye kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona lanoma iyiphi imidiya ezimbili in contact optical sasibizwa Snell index yezokubona (RI)
South Sea amaparele
amaparele giant cultured, cultured esiliva-lipped pearl oysters nge ububanzi 12 noma ngisho 16mm. Lezi amapharele big white wathola igama South Sea ngoba ekuqaleni ezivezwa Japanese in Microne-sia kanye Indonesia. Namuhla lezi amaparele akhiqizwa njalo e-Australia futhi eBurma, ne-Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea naseMicronesia Thailand njengoba imithombo ezingabalulekile kangako. Kuze kube manje akubanga khona yimpumelelo yokufakelwa iqoqo wathifela sesiliva-lipped pearl oyster, okusho ukuthi ukuphakelwa kukagesi endaweni oysters umama sincane kantsi amanani ngokufanele high
amandla adonsela phansi Specific (SG)
ubukhulu be-SG noma obuncane besilinganiso isilinganiso esiphakathi kwesisindo sento kanye nesisindo somthamo olinganayo wamanzi amsulwa ku-4 ° C (ubukhulu besisindo samanzi) kanye nengcindezi ejwayelekile yomkhathi. I-SG ihlobene nokwakheka kwamakhemikhali kwalokhu kanye nokuhlanganiswa kwe-inter-athomu (empeleni, akuthonywa kuphela isisindo se-athomu sezinto ezahlukahlukene zezinto kodwa futhi nendlela ama-athomu abekwa ngayo ndawonye)
spectroscope
ithuluzi ohlukanisa wokukhanya ukukhanya kungene yamaza yayo labo ababamele noma imibala spectrum esebenzisa nezibhebhe noma umumo womsebenzi nehele. I spectroscope ovumela umuntu ukuba abone yiziphi izigaba letsite (imigqa noma bands) noma ezindaweni (ukumuncwa ezibanzi) yokukhanya amhlophe amuncwa enetshe by nizihlakaza noma ukwelula yamaza asalile okuye ngocansi noma ayeveza kusuka itshe ngaphansi kovivinyo (hhayi ail amatshe khombisa spectrum hhayi ail spectrums ezibonwayo zokuxilonga kodwa ukumuncwa bands kungase kubonise Umbala ejenti noma ukuba khona izakhi ezithile)
Splintery
bheka ukwa
wesimethri
wesimethri libhekisela ohlangeni njalo noma ibhalansi ukuma gem kokubili isikhundla ubuso-up and in profile
inclusions Syngenetic
inclusions owayephila ngesikhathi ehlanganisa izinto okuyinto banikezwe ngesikhathi esifanayo njengoba crystai aphethe (isib, ukudla okuqinile okumbiwa phansi; uketshezi in izimbotshana futhi ephulukisa imifantu; bands zonal, inclusions liquid. iminonjana sokukhula ezifana nombala nokuklanywa futhi kumiswa twin Kukhona njalo i wayala intergrowth phakathi inclusions syngenetic umkhosi crystal kangangokuthi bobabili ukuba athwale nobuhlobo zesakhiwo ilawulwa imithetho crystallographic
namatshe ayigugu zokwenziwa
zokwenziwa umkhiqizo ngendlela efanayo amakhemikhali ukwakheka, isakhiwo atomic Izakhiwo njengoba sabafowabo zemvelo (isib, zokwenziwa Emerald, zokwenziwa corundum, njll)
ukuphikelela
ukuphikelela noma ubunzima kuyinto ukumelana a gem breaking noma aphuke. It is esihlobene namaminerali ikhono lokwamukela uthuthumele ngaphandle ukuphazamiseka isakhiwo internai. Imigomo wahlangana ne kule ndaba zihlanganisa ziyaqothuka, sectile, oluthambile, nezimo futhi nokunwebeka
films Thin
wayebheka ngaphansi ukukhanya ayeveza lezi films mncane banesibopho ukubukeka enhlobonhlobo ejwayelekile ungqimba ezondile amafutha namanzi noma ebusweni emibalabala bubble insipho
Three isigaba iinthombe
umgodi ugcwale uketshezi-oqukethe bubble kanye crystal
Tone
ukukhalayo libhekisela lightness isihlobo noma ubumnyama okucatshangelwayo (loba abe luhlaza noma elimhlophe black)
Imininingwane reflection yangaphakathi
reflection Imininingwane yangaphakathi kwenzeka lapho a, ray kusishiya ukukhanya okwakuvela luthe ukuqina osebenzelana nemimoya lingandile engela njengengcebo enkulu kunemicebo angle esibucayi ebuyiselwa medium luthe ukuqina lapho ke owulalelayo imithetho ka reflection
ubunzima
bheka ukuphikelela
izakhi Transition
yigama elisebenza izakhi ezithile metallic okuyinto ngenxa isakhiwo sabo yama-athomu, ukusebenza ukumuncwa abakhethayo yokukhanya ngamatshe idiochromatic kanye allochromatic. Ziyakwazi chrome, ayibe, ithusi, vanadium, manganese, insimbi, nickel futhi titanium
Dlulisa
ukuze kudlule (isib, ukukhanya) kusukela komunye medium kwenye; ukuba ithumele (isib, a signal) noma uthumele kwi (e..g., kusukela komunye umuntu kuya kwesinye)
Transparency
the inkululeko ngazo ukukhanya uphasile noma ngobulili ngokusebenzisa itshe. I ngamazinga ahlukene obala zinikwa njengoba: esobala (TP) -a intfo esobala libonakalisa futhi zimuncwe esincane ukukhanya kwelanga phezu kwayo, kodwa kuvumela kakhulu ukuba adabule. Intfo zibhekwa itshe livela ecacile futhi abahlukene. Sub-esobala (S-TP) -okungamasonto esiningi ukukhanya idluliselwa ngokusebenzisa itshe, kodwa kuphela uhlaka bento ngakolunye uhlangothi itshe asikwazi ayevelele. Sub-ayevumela (S-TL) -only esincane kakhulu ukukhanya kudlulele ngalé Igugu at emaphethelweni mncane. Opaque (0) -ail ukukhanya olungena ungene intfo opaque kungenzeka ayeveza noma amuncwa. Ayikho ukukhanya sidlula impahla, ngisho imiphetho mncane.
Treacle iinthombe
ukushisa-wave noma roiled umphumela-wisps kanye swirls of umbala
Twin crystal
crystal twin kuyinto crystal okuyinto yakhiwa ezimbili neengcezu of the crystal efanayo noma zinhlayiya ezimbili noma ngaphezulu uhlobo olufanayo lapho babe nobuhlobo crystallographic ngqo komunye nomunye futhi usukhulile ndawonye ngendlela ziyalingana (bheka imininingwane amawele namawele interpenetrant)
Two isigaba iinthombe
umgodi ugcwale uketshezi-oqukethe bubble noma crystal
Ultraviolet (UV)
ultraviolet kusho ngaphesheya violet. Lokhu uhla emisebeni iqala nge yamaza ukuthi zimfushane ukwedlula 400nm of violet ukukhanya
amatshe Uniaxial
ezinhlelweni ezinamacala ayisithupha ezinhlangothi eziyisithupha, i-trigonal kanye ne-tetragonal kukhona i-axis eyodwa ye-optic (ukuqondiswa kwe-refraction eyodwa): amaminerali alezi zinhlelo aziwa njenge-uniaxial (ematsheni we-uniaxial i-axis ye-optic ifana ne-axis eyi-c 'eyi-axis)
Unit cell
unit cell crystal isakhiwo esingagcina okuyingxenye kencani a crystal okuyinto namanje possesses izindawo sici crystal okubizwa ngokuthi unit cell. Indlela unit amaseli zibekwa ngumama ngokwemvelo inquma ukubukeka kwangaphandle crystal
iinthombe Veil
bheka feather iinthombe
okukhanya okubonakalayo
ukukhanya ebonakalayo kuwuhlobo zamandla akhishwa imisebe yalo lapho kuphakamisa lokujabulela emehlweni. Noma yimuphi nombono emisebeni kagesi okungukuthi cishe phakathi 400nm futhi 700nm iyabonakala iso womuntu njengoba ukukhanya
Vitreous
bheka ucwebezela ngendlela ekhangayo
nombono
inamandla kuchazwa njengoba ibanga phakathi iziqongo ezimbili zilandelana ukuthi wave
waxy
bheka ucwebezela ngendlela ekhangayo
ukukhanya White
ukukhanya white (ukukhanya exubile) yakhiwa ingxube cishe alinganayo yonke imibala noma yamaza ezakha spectrum ebonakalayo (obomvu, osawolintshi, ophuzi, oluhlaza, blue and violet). Umbala ukukhanya siyahlukahluka kuxhomeke nombono. amagagasi Red babe yamaza omude kunayo yonke (700 + NM) futhi lokhu siyehla ngokusebenzisa spectrum ukuba violet banemibono, okuyinto babe lemfisha (400nm-mayelana 1 / 4 ubude wale misebe abomvu)
window
indawo esobala ongaphakeme umbala okujula okubangelwa ukuvuza ukukhanya okuvumela ngemuva ngemuva itshe ukuze kubonakale (funda ngokusebenzisa umphumela)
zircon Halo
bheka iinthombe Halo
striae ngokwezindawo
bheka umbala bands