gem Uluhlu

Gemology Uluhlu - Gemological Institute of Cambodia Uluhlu. Gem Uluhlu. amatshe Uluhlu

abalone amaparele

ezinemibala amaparele yezobuciko ezivezwa i silwanyana ezidliwayo univalue elithatha shell endlebeni emise ezazaziswa kakhulu mama wezingane pearl lining yayo emibalabala. Lezi zitholakala America, New Zealand amanzi Japanese. Thukela spheroid, basuke ngokuvamile isicaba futhi endlebeni noma eliyindilinga tooth-

ukudla kwezimila

ukuthatha up (sib, ikhemikhali) noma ukuthatha e noma athole amandla kusukela zamandla akhishwa imisebe yalo (isib, ukukhanya)

ukumuncwa spectrum

iphethini imigca emnyama mpo, bands, noma izindawo (ukumuncwa ebanzi), wambona lapho ukukhanya kwelanga okuye kwadluliselwa noma ayeveza kusuka enetshe ohlakaziwe ku izingxenye zalo Spectral futhi lahlola usebenzisa into enjalo njengoba spectroscope.

Adamantine

bheka ucwebezela ngendlela ekhangayo

Adularescence

isici sheen bluish-white noma Milky (Schiller) moonstone

Allochromatic

lapho amalungu soguquko likhona kuphela njengoba okuphothula encane impahla gem, okokusebenza allochromatic (allo = nezinye; chroma = umbala)

Alluvium

ligama lelivamile ebisetshenziswa deposits rock doti (anesihlabathi deposits) eziye eyalo ogeleza amanzi kanye wabeka phansi ekusakazeni, emfuleni, isikhukhula imibhede plain noma lake.

amorphous

bheka non-crystalline

Anisotropic

bheka isibili yezokubona

Archimedes simiso

Archimedes simiso lithi uma umzimba egxilile uketshezi, khona-ke iphuzu lwaphezulu ketshezi emzimbeni ilingana isisindo ketshezi abangenamakhaya. (Ukuzimisela gravity okucacile ngumkhiqizi hydrostatic indlela enesisindo kusekelwe kulesi simiso)

amatshe Artificial

zinhlayiya umuntu-owenziwe engazungeziwe uzakwabo yemvelo (isib simulants diamond: titanate Sesithombe kanye YAG)

ukwelashwa Artificial

ngcono ukubukeka kwento by Ukushisa, staining, enamathela, impregnation, ngemisebe noma ngemisebe ye-laser imishini

namatshe ayigugu ohlanganisiwe

yimuphi gem sakhiwe izingxenye ezimbili noma ngaphezulu okuye waqinisa noma tho ndawonye ukwakha ngetshe elilodwa

Asterism

asterism kuba nomphumela reflection, ngokuvamile ezine noma eziyisithupha-rayed, kusukela zesivikelo sesifuba siqondile noma izimbotshana lunemicu e itshe eye wasika en cabochon ne inclusions kuthambekele parallel indiza nebhande

Aventurescence

reflection strong spangled ukukhanya amapuleti noma ishq yomunye amaminerali wahlanganisa itshe (isib, njengoba kubonakala aventurine ingilazi, asebenza ngebhethri aventurine, aventurine feldspar (sunstone))

Axis isimethri

esinye sezici wesimethri, i-eksisi eqonde ngqo wesimethri kuyinto line iplanethi ngokusebenzisa isikhungo a crystal, ngalo crystal kungenziwa liphenduka ukuze alethe ukubukeka efanayo 2, 3, 4 noma 6 izikhathi e umjikelezo owodwa ophelele (ngamanye amazwi , ubuso efanayo usesikhundleni efanayo, ngaphezu kwesikhathi esisodwa ashintshane ephelele)

amaparele Baroque

yigama elisebenza amapharele, ezemvelo kanye cultured, ibhamuza noma isimila,

okuyizinto njalo shape

basalt

basalt, ezivamile extrusive igneous rock, kuyinto omnyama, idwala okuncane ngokuyisisekelo lakhiwa abantu abaphakathi kuka feldspar emnyama futhi pyroxene (noma ngaphandle Olivine). Kunezindlela eziningana izinhlobo okuyinto ihlukaniswa kuye Ukushintshashintsha ukuthungwa, isakhiwo kanye nokuqukethwe nokumbiwa

amatshe Biaxial

ezimisweni orthorhombic, monoclinic futhi triclinic kukhona abathathu crystal izimbazo anobude obungalingani. kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona Double okuyokwenzeka tinkhombandlela kakhulu, kodwa kuyoba khona izimbazo ezimbili optic (tinkhombandlela of kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona single) ezingalingani orientation in ngalunye oluphilayo zakwazi gem ahlukene. minerals okuqondene lwalezi nhlelo zaziwa njengoba biaxial. (Kuhlelo orthorhombic the izimbazo optic ngokulinganayo awathandanga ukuyisiza le 'c' (isimiso eksisi eqonde ngqo phezulu), kanti triclinic monoclinic futhi akukho ubuhlobo ngqo ngezimbazo crystal.)

Birefringence

(Okubhekiselwa kuzo nangokuthi kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona double / DR) birefringence inani kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona kabili amatshe anisotropic uzwakalise njengoba umehluko phakathi indices yezokubona at separation esiphezulu

Biwa amaparele

non-nucleated amapharele cultured (ngokuvamile amise okweqanda noma yezobuciko in shape eJapane) ayelinywa emhlabeni lweLake Biwa eJapane. I amaparele etshalwa ezinkulu namanzi izimbaza ngokufaka izicucu of isiphuku emzimbeni we izimbaza

angelasici

ligama lelivamile ukushiyeka lapho kuthinta ebusweni gem. A angelasici is ngokuvamile kubangelwa nezenzo zomuntu, noma kuyilapho gem kubizwa kokusikwa noma ngesikhathi kusathiwa esigqokwa ubucwebe. Imihuzuko, imigodi, futhi imihuzuko izinhlobo ezivame kakhulu of nasici

amaparele ibhamuza

amapharele okuyinto lihambisana ohlangothini olulodwa ungqimba nacreous owakhula phezu ecasulayo original ukuxhumana igobolondo silwanyana. Lapho amaparele enjalo ekhishwe, endaweni lapho kwaba nabo igobolondo kuyinto eziyisisekelo nacre. Ngakho kulolu hlangothi angenalutho is ngokuvamile esehlelembe off futhi abafihlwe nesibekandzaba

Brilliance

okhazimula kuyinto eliningi ingqikithi ukukhanya ngaphakathi ayeveza ukuthi ebuyiselwa iso kusukela amatshe. Okukanye it ungaboniswa njengoba ukukhazimula (impilo) a amatshe njengoba kunqunywa umthamo wokukhanya ayeveza emuva iso kusukela emuva sinezici itshe

Brittleness

brittleness uchazwa ngokuthi ubuthaka enetshe lapho naphezu ubulukhuni bayo, kwenza kube ekuthonyweni ukwa, umonakalo (isib, ukushisa waphatha zircon)

iso Cat sika

bheka chatoyancy

Center isimethri

esinye sezici wesimethri, isikhungo wesimethri khona lapho zonke ebusweni crystal ephelele akuhambisani okuphambene ubuso efanayo ngakolunye uhlangothi of the crystal (ie, bonke ubuso unesinye ubuso efanayo, okuphambene kanye parallel)

Chatoyancy

nomphumela reflection kusuka ngamakhasimende parallel inclusions lunemicu noma (iso cat sika) anezimbobo. I streak eyodwa yokukhanya livela ucondze ilungelo isiqondiso inclusions futhi ukubonile arcade ngaphansi single phezulu umthombo wokukhanya ngematje ukuthi ogawulelwé en cabochon

Chelsea umbala Rater

uyithuluzi ehlanganisa inhlanganisela umshini, kanjalo icanjwe ukuthi uvumela ezimbili kuphela izingxenye emincane spectrum ibonakale ngokusebenzisa kwalo: lawo red ejulile (eduze 690nm) kanye green yellow (eduze 570nm). Kuyasiza in okubonisa ukuba khona chrome noma ayibe e amagugu ezithile, ngoba ukuthola (chrome) udayi ngamatshe kanye ekwehlukaniseni ezinye izinto gem kusuka okusuke zabo ezivamile. Isikhumbuzi: Sebenzisa njengoba kuyisixwayiso kuphela. Proof buncike nolunye uvivinyo

Chromophore

(Umbala agent). Ingxenye ye-molecule unesibopho umbala ekhuthaza sika. Kuyinto niyilethe njengesinkwa i abazobhekela ebalulekile ukubunjwa amakhemikhali e amatshe idiochromatic noma njengesithembiso okuphothula accidentai ematsheni allochromatic

Clarity

igama elalisetshenziselwa ukuchaza yenkululeko kusuka yisiphi isici internai noma ukuzwe (inclusions) in a gem. The definition Lungase yandiswa yahlanganisa ebusweni yokulimala ekwakhiweni (nezici) lapho sicabangela grade ukucaciseleka itshe

Color bands

bands kalukhuni okucishe kufane nalokhu umbala umbonile phezu zinhlayiya noma ku izakhiwo internai yamatshe (kukhombisa ukukhula izigaba okubangelwa umehluko e etholakalayo amakhemikhali, uketshezi, izinga lokushisa, ingcindezi kanye nezinye izici)

Color in GEMS

mbono ebonwayo nabavoti kulo ukukhanya ezimhlophe zingase ziqale ehlukanisiwe (obomvu, osawolintshi, ophuzi, oluhlaza okotshani, blue, violet) kanye lokujabulela purple okuyinto ayitholakali spectrum kwelanga. Color sichazwe imibala, saturation kanye nephimbo. Umbala isidumbu enetshe lisuselwa ukukhanya ngalo bubonakala kanye nokuba ngenxa ukumuncwa yamaza ezithile okukhanya okubonakalayo. Color kungabuye okubangelwa ukuhlakazwa, impambaniso okukhanya futhi fluorescence

Color nokuklanywa

nokuklanywa umbala eba ngesikhathi ukukhula kwe-crystal ngenxa lokuhlala nesimiso sobuntu sokuhlalisana ngokuthula amanyela. Kwemibala (bands noma esishintshashintshayo) ngokuvamile ngimbone ukulandela crystal ubuso ekhona

izakhi Umbala

ukumuncwa okukhetha ukukhanya ngenxa yokuba khona izakhi soguquko (chrome, ayibe, ithusi, vanadium, manganese, insimbi, nickel, titanium) ngamatshe idiochromatic futhi allochromatic

Compact

icwecwe kunencazelo efanayo emikhulu futhi sisetshenziswa ikakhulukazi uma zinhlayiya khombisa akutholakalanga phawu izinhlayiya zesakhiwo (isib, fme-grained jadeite jade)

amatshe Composite

bheka amatshe wabuthela

Conch amaparele

pink amapharele: amapharele eyatholakala kusukela Conch omkhulu, a silwanyana univalve esitholakala Njengoba zikude nogu Florida, Gulf of California neMexico. Lezi amaparele ngokuvamile pink (orange pink noma white) ngombala futhi elinesimo ukuntula enamathela nacreous

Conchoidal

bheka ukwa

Xhumana nami tamorphic

the recrystallization of okuqukethwe amaminerali yamadwala nga pre-existing noma eduze zone contact ngenxa ebukhoneni magmas

Contact twin

uhlobo crystal twinning lapho abantu basesimweni contact kanye indiza ovamile (indiza twin). Izingxenye ezimbili crystal enjalo ukuze ahlobene ukuthi uma enye ingxenye liphenduka ngokusebenzisa 180 ° (a turn isigamu) mayelana i-eksisi eqonde ngqo (eksisi twin) khona-ke halves ezimbili engenza ukuma crystal ngabanye. I twin contact uziphilela amafomu amabili: contact single twin-lapho 2 neengcezu of a crystal ziqondile reverse ukuze uma isigamu esisodwa liphenduka 180 ° mayelana endizeni ujoyine, isimo crystal evamile is eyatholakala; okuphindaphindiwe, amawele-a polysynthetic noma lammelar uhlobo crystal twinning anabamemezeli uchungechunge contact amawele ngokuvamile in amapuleti mncane kakhulu. Lezi ahlelwe orientation obuhlukile komakhelwane babo ngokushesha (isib, njengoba atholakala corundum kanye feldspar). Bheka twins futhi interpenetrant

angle Critical

engela kwesifo lapho wokukhanya ukukhanya kwelanga besuka i optically luthe ukuqina ukuze medium lingandile is refracted at 90 ° evamile (ie, it Eziko ebusweni abezindaba ezimbili in contact). Qaphela: noma yimuphi ukwanda okwengeziwe ngokuthi lokhu engela kwesifo abangele ray refracted ukuze nginqande zingene medium original ukuthi ibingase bathobele imithetho of reflection (ie, wayeyoba ngokuphelele ngaphakathi ayeveza.)

Cryptocrystalline

(Mfihlo = kufihlwe). Igama elalisetshenziselwa ukuchaza impahla ehlanganisa i eziningi kangaka amakristalu ezincane ngokuvamile sub-ezincane azakhele mass ziqotho. I sub-ezincane crystal aggregate angase abonakale amorphous ngokubona okubonakala ngeso lenyama

Crystal

crystal siqinile iyunifomu amakhemikhali nge ngaphambilini internai isakhiwo atomic ifomu yangaphandle igudle ngendiza afanako wahlela (flat) ubuso

ifomu crystal

ifomu crystal siqukethe ail labo ubuso ezithathwa ngokufanayo ezihlobene izimbazo crystallographic (isib, isivivane, nezibhebhe, pinacoid, Dome)

crystal umkhuba

amabumbeko crystal (ifomu, plus surface izici) lapho amaminerali zivamise ukwenzeka zibizwa ngokuthi imikhuba yabo crystal

crystal inclusions

crystal inclusions ziyabonakala ekubeni emagumbini kuqhathaniswa emincane futhi imiphetho kuqhathaniswa iqonde. imiphetho engalingani kanye namafomu kancane babanjwa kuthiwa wahlangana ngenxa reabsorption we inclusions. (Crystal inclusions ngokuvamile lingaveli impumuzo ngokumelene background aphethe uma kubhekwa ngaphansi darkfield okukhanyisa. Bangaphinde ihlolwe ngokusebenzisa polars sawela.)

crystal wesimethri

crystal wesimethri libhekisela iphethini olinganiselayo isakhiwo yama-athomu. Kuyinto reproduction eqondile (uphinda ukubukeka) efanayo crystal ubuso (imiphetho, emagumbini) ukuthi ukhombise wayala ilungiselelo zangaphakathi izidakamizwa.

crystalline

crystalline indaba ncazelo mineral esiqinile ogama ion, ama-athomu, noma ama-molecule ahlelwe ngendlela ehlelekile. Ngo practice, leli gama livame ukusetshenziswa ukuze achaze izinto banezimfanelo isakhiwo ejwayelekile kanye izakhiwo ohlangothini kodwa akusho yangaphandle shape geometric

izimbazo Crystallographic

Yilawa imigqa ngamehlo engqondo nanini ubude ukugijima ngokusebenzisa

crystal ekahle tinkhombandlela ezithile ocacile maqondana wesimethri we crystal. They nquma maphakathi crystal at iphuzu ebizwa ngokuthi umsuka. (Ziyakwazi imizila okuvela okungase kulinganiswa amabanga isihlobo kanye ukuthambekela ubuso ahlukahlukene.)

amaparele cultured

amapharele cultured kukhona zokwakheka esibenyezelayo ngokuphelele noma ingxenye yaso zabangela

by ukungenela nhlangano yabantu singene ingaphakathi mollusk ithele. Lokhu kusebenza amapharele cultured ngabe kufakwe noma ingafakiwe i-nucleus

simila amaparele

iparele okuyinto eye kwakheka ngaphakathi emzimbeni silwanyana pearl futhi spheroid shape

iinthombe Dendritic

isihlahla-like noma moss-like ufa ukugcwaliswa (lapho inclusions material ezahlukene ingase fil ikhefu -. ngokujwayelekile insimbi oxide)

Divitrify

ukuphuca of ayebuthaka lwengilazi kanye transluceny. (In the case of umkhiqizo ingilazi esibizwa meta jade - i-ukuthuthukiswa crystallization incipient)

Dichroscope

the dichroscope is ithuluzi elivumela imiphumela pleochroic gem namaminerali ukuze babonwe, imibala emibili noma shades of umbala ngesikhathi

umumo womsebenzi

the umumo womsebenzi yokukhanya kuwuhlobo ezikhethekile ukugxambukela sokukhanya lapho ukukhanya omhlophe bahlukana (waqhekeka) ku imibala yayo ingxenye njengoba ukukhanya kudlula a beso encane noma uma amaza okukhanya kudlule onqenqemeni phakathi izinto ngendlela ehlukile refracting (isib, play webala elimnyama njengoba sibonile kulokhu Itshe eliyigugu eziyigugu)

ukuhlakazwa

ukuhlakazwa kuyinto ukuhlukaniswa (breaking up) wokukhanya white singene imibala Spectral by kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona (ukugoba ukukhanya) njengoba ukukhanya kudlula evele ezimbili enalokho kuthambekela. In amagugu ngokuvamile aye abizwa ngokuthi 'emlilweni'

yezokubona Double

anisotropic - amaminerali bembonisa ohlangothini izakhiwo optical (isib, amatshe e-tetragonal, trigonal eziyisithupha, orthorhombic, izinhlelo monoclinic kanye triclinic)

spectrum kagesi

gama lisetshenziswe ngoba lonke uhla yamaza zamandla akhishwa imisebe yalo kusukela amagagasi omsakazo omude kunayo yonke ngokusebenzisa zishesha kakhulu ukuphelelwa yamaza cosmic

Elements of wesimethri

izakhi wesimethri kukhona indlela classifi-wezeFundo for the crystal izinhlelo eziyisikhombisa. Ziyakwazi amadivayisi ukuze sikwazi ukuhlala ngokwahlukana futhi uchaze izinhlobo ezahlukene crystal shape. Bahlanganisa indiza wesimethri, i-eksisi eqonde ngqo wesimethri futhi iyisikhungo wesimethri (bheka izincazelo ngaphansi Ukufakwa ohlwini ngabanye)

Eluvium

deposits eluvial kuqukathe rock doti (ngohlalwane) eye kwaluqeda (badlula out) edwaleni aphethe futhi lihlala situ (endaweni) ngaphandle ababhekene zokuhamba emifuleni

Emit

ukunikeza off noma out (isib, ukukhanya)

Enantiomorphism

isakhiwo yamangqamuzana asebenza ngebhethri okuyinto kuphakamisa kwesokunxele bese kwesokudla isandla Kuvunguza ukukhula asebenza ngebhethri, futhi nokwehlukana yayo yindilinga. (Qaphela: Ukubekwa sobuso ezincane auxillary okuyizinto njalo ebonakalayo yangaphandle losizo ukuhlonza handedness kwesokunxele noma kwesokudla crystal)

Enhancement

bheka ukwelashwa yokufakelwa

inclusions Epigenetic

post inclusions wesimanje. Labo okwenzeka ngemva kokwakhiwa crystal impi. Lezi zihlanganisa nezinhlobo ezahlukene emifantwini futhi inclusions nokumbiwa ezakhiwe exsolution (isib, rutile usilika e corundum); ingasaphathwa amafutha / opticon, njll, izinsalela e ukwa wagcwalisa amagugu.

Exsolution inclusions

bheka exsolved

Exsolved

the unmixing amaminerali. Ezinye ngazimbili amaminerali yakha izixazululo esiqinile okushisa aphakeme futhi babe engazinzile okushisa aphansi. Lapho lezi kuphole kancane kungenzeka omunye amaminerali baphoqwe ukuthi lapho isakhiwo aphethe epholisa futhi izivumelwano, ngokoqobo ecindezela ukungcola ku izikhala ezikhona okunemali ebekelwe zona bakuphi crystallize (isib, rutile inaliti (usilika) e corundum)

Ukuqothulwa

ukuqothulwa ukungabikho yokukhanya kokubuyela iso. Lokhu kubangela itshe ukuba avele amnyama abanako billiance

amagama isici

GEMS faceted abe umqhele (ingxenye phezulu ngenhla kwebhande), itafula (the isici maphakathi umqhele), ibhande (isigaba zamatshe azungezwe omkhulu kunabo noma umngcele yangaphandle), nendawo (ingxenye engezansi ngezansi ibhande ). Zonke ezinye izici zingase ubheka ubungako bawo, imvamisa noma ngisho ukhona kuncike isitayela cutting esetshenziswa. Ngokwesibonelo, ngo isinyathelo-ukusika standard (Emerald ukunquma) amatshe the culet (isici ezincane phansi inkundla) indawo a line keel (ujenga nokwelula kanye maphakathi phansi inkundla)

cleavage False

bheka KUBUHLUNGU kakhulu

Feather iinthombe

indiza ngomzuzu izimbotshana ngokuvamile bavele njengezinto eziningi izigaba emihle induku efana intercommunicating iziteshi (ngokuvamile liquid ugcwale).

lunemicu

elethiwa impahla lapho zinhlayiya abazobhekela kukhona inaliti emise (isib, asbestos, nephrite jade)

inclusions Fingerprint

lezi zingase futhi okungase kwaziwe njengoba ukuphulukiswa izimpaphe kuqukathe interconnecting amanethiwekhi iziteshi ugcwale liquid-futhi amaconsi sifana zeminwe. Ngokuvamile umphumela izixazululo yezimbiwa kancane kancane gqwa ibe ufa pre-ekhona kwi-crystal kakade kwakhiwa, futhi ephulukisa ZaseLaki. Lezi ezinye simo lapho izici ezinjalo zabanye kungakuqinisa kwenzeke ngesikhathi ukwelashwa ukushisa ukushisa. Izigxivizo zeminwe zijwayelekile ngeyamarubi baphathwa

Qeda

sekugcineni libhekisela izinga faceting we gem futhi ahlulelwe yibo degree of akhanye, njalo, futhi flatness of isici ngasinye

Fluorescence

fluorescence kuyinto ekushayweni okukhanya okubonakalayo by ayigugu ukuthi baye bathola radiations ezibonwayo kumbe ezingabonwayo of inamandla (energy ephakeme)

ukwa

ukwa kuyinto chip okungajwayelekile noma ikhefu itshe

gem

itshe eliyigugu kwanoma yiluphi uhlobo, asikwe futhi yona-iphucuziwe for nomhlobiso (pearl kuyinto okuhlukile esiphawulekayo esilethwa nokufuneka sakamuva). A gem by ncazelo yilowo anazo ubuhle, ukuqina kanye rarity

Glass

ingilazi Leligama lisetshenziswa izinto ezingafaneleki adalwe ukuncibilika kanye nokupholisa ngokushesha izinto amaminerali, okuphumela ekwakhiweni material amorphous. Glass kungaba yokufakelwa (manmade, ngezinye izikhathi ibizwa ngokuthi unama) noma ngaphezulu kuyaqabukela, isib zemvelo, obsidian (ingilazi yentaba-mlilo), tektites (okucatshangwa ukuthi imikhiqizo meteoric splash)

granite

granite kuyinto ukukhanya anemibala, amaqhafuqhafu-grained igneous awayiphazamisi rock owakhiwa asebenza ngebhethri, feldspar futhi mica

Growth nisishiye siboshwé ngebhande

bands lighter mnyama imigqa iqonde ucondze kutsi ukulandela iphethini isakhi yezimbiwa

Habit

ijamo isici lapho mineral ngokuvamile kwenzeka. Habit hhayi nje ihlanganisa ifomu yangaphandle evame bamukela amaminerali kodwa ejwayelekile ngaphandle imiphumela kanye

Hackly

bheka ukwa

Halo iinthombe

crystal iinthombe zizungezwe ufa ukucindezeleka (s). Lezi zingase futhi ibukeke uvemvane namaphiko amabili lovela crystal yayihlanganisa (okuvamise zircon)

ubulukhuni

ubulukhuni lingamandla mineral has ukumelana ukunwaya (nemihuzuko). Bheka futhi ngezinga Moh sika

Ukwelapha imifantu

waphulukisa imifantu (imifantu noma cleavages) lapho uketshezi wangena break kanye crystal lakhula babuyelane. Ngokuvamile izingxenye ezithize uketshezi babambeke izimbotshana neziteshi ebangela feathery noma zeminwe-like amaphethini (ngezinye izikhathi iron zigcwele)

Hue

imibala libhekisela egameni umbala ngokwayo: oluhlanzekile emizweni Spectral obomvu, orange, ophuzi, oluhlaza okotshani, blue, violet kanye nomculo lezi. Hue futhi libhekisela lokujabulela purple (phakathi obomvu noluhlaza violet), okuyinto ayitholakali spectrum kwelanga

ezingaphansi kolwandle

amadwala babeka phansi, ngokuvamile emabangeni yokugcina sokuhlanganiswa igneous kusukela magma ocebile amanzi kanye nezinye izinto oluyingozi. Ngemithambo ezingaphansi kolwandle yezimbiwa ocebile izixazululo lemifanekiso ngokusebenzisa izikhala kanye emifantwini yamadwala sedimentary futhi ifomu crystal izimbotshana ujenga edwaleni

Idiochromatic

lapho amalungu soguquko kuyinto abazobhekela ezibalulekile impahla gem, indaba gem kuyinto idiochromatic (idio = self, chroma = umbala)

ukucwiliswa cell

ingilazi cell ezincane eliqukethe uketshezi ezifanele. Isimiso okusekelwe kuso usebenzisa i cell ukucwiliswa wukuthi index yezokubona ketshezi iwukuba zamatshe, yilapho kuyoba lula nakakhulu ukubona itshe. Cishe noma yiluphi uketshezi kungekho nto enemibala emihle, ngisho namanzi, uyogenca surface reflection, futhi wenze inclusions nekwehlwaya lula kakhulu

In situ

impahla nazo isikhundla lapho ekuqaleni kwakhiwa noma zibekwe kuthiwa itholakala situ (ngokwezwi nezwi endaweni)

Ukufakwa

ligama lelivamile yisiphi isici noma ukuzwe kungakapheli gem. INCLUSIONS zingahlukaniswa zibe izinhlobo ezintathu ezahlukene: esiqinile-kokubili crystalline (isib, zircon e isafire) noma non-crystalline (isib, ingilazi bemvelo peridot) zingenzeka. Izimbotshana-lezi bangase bafinyelele ngesikhathi aphethe amagugu ukukhula (inclusions primary), noma kamuva (inclusions secondary). Kuphakathi uhlobo nigcwaliswe iyiphi inhlanganisela liquid, igesi kanye noma esiqinile. Labo nge izigaba ezimbili noma ngaphezulu ngokuthi multiphase. Growth izenzakalo-umbala nokuklanywa futhi twinning kukhona kokubili izibonelo sokukhula imihlola

Isikhala seso

izindlela infrared ngezansi obomvu kanye le uhla emisebeni iqala nge yamaza ukuthi awasenaso ukwedlula 700nm yokukhanya obomvu. amaza okushisa kubizwa ngokuthi ukushisa ngoba uveza umuzwa imfudumalo lapho kugadla skip yethu

impambaniso

lapho imisebe ababili bebehamba endleleni efanayo, kodwa out of isigaba (isinyathelo), Okusizayo aphazamise komunye nomunye okubangela noma nezimila ezisengozini yokuqothulwa Imininingwane wokukhanya noma pre-ukubusa eyodwa noma ngaphezulu imibala

impambaniso izibalo

Yilezi imiphumela optical ukubonakala ngesikhathi double amaminerali yezokubona zibhekwa ngokusebenzisa ubuso okufanayo convergent ugongolo okukhanya. They ukukhokhela ukwaziswa okuwusizo ngokuphathelene komshini we itshe

twins Interpenetrant

uhlobo crystal twinning lapho abantu ababili ukuze likhule ndawonye sengathi ukuba bakwazi ukungena komunye nomunye (ngokuvamile ikhiqiza cross noma inkanyezi amatshe)

Iridescence

iridescence noma ukudlala umbala lichaza umbala nofana kweemfundo imibala ezivezwa isiphazamiso noma umumo womsebenzi lapho ukukhanya ibonakala kungaba amafilimu mncane noma kusukela isakhiwo eliyingqayizivele Itshe Eliyigugu eziyigugu

replacement Isomorphous

ngokufaka esikhundleni womunye element amakhemikhali ukuze kutholakale enye the valency ezifanayo ukubunjwa amakhemikhali. Lokhu kuphumela ukuhluka kabanzi Izakhiwo of amalungu yochungechunge. Valency: efanayo amakhemikhali ubunjalo kanye engaba ionic

Isotropic

bheka singly yezokubona

Keshi amaparele cultured

zemvelo non-nucleated angenasawoti amaparele akha in a silwanyana uma ebuyiselwa amanzi emva kokususwa kwe-isitshalo of non-nucleated amapharele cultured. Lezi akuzona kudidaniswe imbewu zasolwandle pearis okuyizinto ngokuvamile sincane kakhulu. Amanzi angenasawoti `Keshi 'kuphela okuthiwa ngoba ngokufanayo kungukuthi sikhule ukusukela nucleus yokufakelwa. Ngezinye izikhathi kubhekiselwa kuye ngokuthi `seedless 'amapharele ukwenza umahluko nge non-nucleated. Bheka futhi Biwa amaparele

Keshi amaparele (zasolwandle)

Japanese ucingo imbewu amapharele `Keshi '(poppy). Usoseshini nansi phakathi nenkundla elincanyana imbewu poppy nabancane kakhulu amaparele ngokwemvelo kwakhiwa

Konoscope

a polariscope eline lens ngokuqinile convergent esiza lula ukubukela impambaniso izibalo

Lamellae inclusions

okubangelwa twinning polysynthetic. Can kuvele njengamadiski amakhethini noma obala inhlanzi-line. Bangase bavele ukuhlangana engele (isib, in corundum lapho tinkhombandlela ukuhlangana)

nenhlabathi Lateritic

emhlabathini impahla (yakhiwa rock izingcezwana kanye nohlaza) okuyinto ngokuyinhloko lisuselwa basait ukubola (a grained omnyama edwaleni esihle yentaba-mlilo okunothe kanye magnesium, okuyinto evulekile kakhulu imiphumela weathering yamakhemikhali lapho kushisa bhé)

Luminescence

ligama lelivamile udela off of ebonakalayo `amakhaza 'ukukhanya by ikhemikhali phezu nizuza isivuno sisiningi kakhulu khona amandla e ngandlela-thile. I izenzakalo izimiso ezinhlanu luminescent yilezi: Chemi-luminescence (woguquko chemical), tribo-luminescence (ezivezwa friction), Thermo-luminescence (ezivezwa ukushisa), photo¬luminescence (ezivezwa radiations ezibonwayo kumbe ezingabonwayo eneji ephakeme / emifushane nombono) kanye cathodoluminescence (imiphumela kusuka excitation nge-ugongolo electron egumbini cleaner)

ucwebezela ngendlela ekhangayo

ayebuthaka iyona nangohlobo lwezinto ukukhanya elisobala ebusweni itshe. Le migomo elandelayo ukuchaza amatshe lusters: metallic: ayebuthaka okusezingeni olwaboniswa opaque metallic namaminerali. adamantine: high surface reflectivity. Vitreous: ayebuthaka glass-like ejwayelekile seningi amagugu. anenhlaka: ayebuthaka ejwayelekile of inhlaka (soft nge RI ongaphakeme). waxy: pheze matte surface (ngezinye izikhathi esibizwa okunamafutha). okunamafutha: kancane oily looking esukela kusakazeka ukukhanya by surface microscopically rough. esibenyezelayo: ayebuthaka of pearl / mama wezingane pearl. silky: ayebuthaka lunemicu kasilika

Mabe (cultured) amaparele

esiyinhlanganisela ibhamuza cultured amaparele lapho nucleus original liye lasuswa futhi kwafakwa ngumuntu bead ezincane waqinisa e, futhi isiqeshana ophahleni olungaphakathi emise kumama ka-pearl ethe njo base yayo ukumboza indawo entula nacre

Magma

oncibilikisiwe (liquid) rock

oluthambile

izindlela oluthambile ngokuba abazokwazi enwetshiwe noma uthonywe eshaya ngesando noma ingcindezi rollers

Man-ezenziwe

umkhiqizo man-made by ncazelo ungomunye esiye kuhlelwe laboratory. (Synthesize ukubeka ndawonye noma ukuhlanganisa tincenye ibe lonke eziyinkimbinkimbi). Umphumela ungase ube zokwenziwa amatshe (ie, lowo inomfuziselo wemvelo) noma i amatshe yokufakelwa (ie, lowo alinaso uzakwabo wemvelo)

Massive

igama elalisetshenziselwa ukuchaza impahla possesses esiqondile isakhiwo internai a crystal, kodwa alibonisi ifomu kwangaphandle weJiyomethri. Lokhu kungenziwa akhiwa eyodwa (isib, wavuka asebenza ngebhethri) noma ngaphezulu crystal amayunithi (isib, jadeite)

Mettalic

bheka ucwebezela ngendlela ekhangayo

Metamict

lisetshenziselwa izinto okuyinto uye wahlupheka ikhefu-phansi kusuka crystalline esimweni ngokwengxenye amorphous; ezivamile amaminerali equkethe materials radioactive (isib, uhlobo ongaphakeme zircon)

rocks Metamorphic

metamorphic (ngokwezwi nezwi, washintsha in ifomu) amadwala akhiwa emadwaleni nga pre-existing ngokuyinhloko ngenxa yesenzo ingcindezi, ukushisa kanye / noma ukwethulwa amasha ikhemikhali

Carat Metric (CT)

one Carat metric = yingxenye eyodwa kweziyisihlanu zenani igremu (0.20gr) noma 200 angu (mg). A Carat metric kuyinto ibutho lika isisindo ukuze ayigugu ail nangamaparele cultured. Isisindo lubonakala ukuba ezindaweni ezimbili zamadesimali kanye aya zivame alengayo ngokuthi 'amaphuzu', ie, 1 Carat metric = 100 amaphuzu

isibonakhulu

ithuluzi optical ehlanganisa inhlanganisela lens oveza isithombe okhulisiwe bento. Abanye ukusetshenziswa ngendlela ebaluleke nakakhulu kokukhulisa: iinthombe isifundo (zemvelo vs. ezenziwe umuntu, mode kumiswa / crystal ukukhula); ngaphandle luhlolo (izinga ukunquma (wesimethri), sula (izimo sinezici, firemarks); bangabonwa yamatshe esiyinhlanganisela; ukuhlonza zokwelapha yokufakelwa; bona bakha ukuba sengozini yokutheleleka umonakalo (isib, ebukhoneni ukwa kanye / noma cleavage); bona Ukubuyelela (SR vs .UDkt, futhi angase abonise nenani birefringence)

Mineral

mineral kuyinto zemvelo ikhemikhali wezinto abanesimo ukubunjwa amakhemikhali kanye Izakhiwo okuyizinto njalo ngaphakathi kwemingcele emincane. isakhiwo Its kuvamise crystalline

ukukhanya monochromatic

ukukhanya monochromatic ungukukhanya of nombono owodwa kuphela. Indinganiso yellow ukukhanya monochromatic esetshenziselwa Refractometer izilinganiso lisuselwa isibani sodium ngentukuthelo. Lokhu empeleni siqukethe amabili eduze kakhulu zehlukaniswe ukuphuma imigqa, value ogama asho kuyinto 589.3nm

inclusions Multiphase

inclusions engaqukatha liquid kanye negesi kanye / noma zinhlayiya

Nacre

a uketshezi ezivezwa kuye isiphuku sakhe sokuthunjwa ezinye mollusk esiyingxenye izingqimba enhlobonhlobo kokubili pearl kanye mama wezingane pearl Ingaphakathi igobolondo silwanyana. Nacre siqukethe carbonate crystalline lime futhi i-conchiolin izinto eziphilayo okuthiwa i

Namometers (NM)

yokukala ezinamaza emifushane spectrum kagesi (zamandla akhishwa imisebe yalo). 1 nanometer = 1 millioneth ingxenye ethile angu (1 / 1,000,000 NM) isib, okukhanya okubonakalayo ingena phakathi 700nm (obomvu) kanye 400nm (violet)

Imi Native

lisetshenziselwa for isitayela ukunquma esakhethwa ukuba sisetshenziswe esiphezulu isisindo nokugcinwa. Lezi Imi amatshe obukhulu bube ngamadokodo ezinkulu ngokuvamile zidinga

recutting ukuba siwufinyelele ngezabelo kangcono

crystal Negative

izimbotshana ngaphakathi gem kokuba simise crystalline. Lezi izimbotshana kwadalwa ngesikhathi ezindaweni ezithile kwakhula ngesilinganiso ngokushesha kunezinye izindawo, ukwakha futhi befaka zintula noma lapho original crystal iinthombe iye yahlakazeka out (zinhlayiya negative ngokuvamile babonakala alula kakhulu kunomoya womkhosi wawo ngaphansi darkfield okukhanyisa)

iinthombe Negative

a iinthombe engakhi engase ibe igesi noma uketshezi agcwaliswe ngamanzi noma aqukethe a iinthombe encane esiqinile (bheka crystal futhi negative)

Ukufundwa Negative

uma itshe ngaphansi kovivinyo on a refractometer ine R.1 ngenhla uhla yomculo, akukho onqenqemeni shadow iyobonakala (ngaphandle kokuthi ketshezi contact)

Non-crystalline

amaminerali nezinye izinto kuthiwa non-crystalline noma amorphous (ngokwezwi nezwi, ngaphandle ifomu) lapho uJack ehlelekile isakhiwo internai atomic ukubukeka yangaphandle geometrically avamile (isib, izinto amaminerali, itshe eliyigugu namabhodlela, kanye materials organic)

ukukhanya Non-white

ukukhanya non-white (ie, anemibala) uchazwa mayelana imibala yayo (ie, umbala nombono salo pre-eliphawuleka ngaso), ukugcwaliswa (ukujula noma ngezikhwepha umbala eliphawuleka ngaso) kanye nephimbo (umthunzi-ukukhanya emnyama)

Normal

e yokukhanya ail engele kukhona ngesilinganiso evamile, i line ngengqondo esitholakala encwadini engele kwesokudla (90 iphuzu lapho ray ushaya ebusweni hhayi ebusweni uqobo

optic-eksisi eqonde ngqo

a isiqondiso kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona single ngaphakathi crystal ngenye isibili yezokubona is njengenhlangano e-eksisi optic aziwa

uhlamvu optic

bheka nature optic

Optic figure sphere

indilinga ingilazi zifakwa induku iDemo okuyinto ethatha njengoba lens ushintsha uba yileli ukusiza ukuxazulula impambaniso amaphethini wambona ahambe e-eksisi optic material anisotropic

optic nature

nature optic a amaminerali: amaminerali zihlukaniswe uniaxial, biaxial futhi isotropic (uhlamvu optic). amaminerali Uniaxial futhi biaxial zibuye selihlukene laba labo okuyizinto optically emihle futhi nalabo okuyizinto optically negative (uphawu optic)

optic uphawu

bheka nature optic

kwabantu optical

inhlanganiso optical impahla eyinkimbinkimbi okuyinto demonstates ngokwayo ukwehlisa ijubane lokukhanya. (Bheka futhi kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona)

imikhiqizo Organic

imikhiqizo organic kukhona labo materials ezivezwa umsebenzi eziphilayo

Orient (of pearl)

the enhlobonhlobo ebusweni sheen gem pearl nonina-of-pearl. It is okubangelwa ukuphazamiseka kwe yokukhanya at films mncane (amapuleti ezondile ungqimba nacreous) nangokusebenzisa umumo womsebenzi ukusuka emaceleni esihle amapuleti

amaparele Oriental

nokusetshenziswa kwaleli gama ingeyabasebenzisi echaza amaparele zemvelo ezitholakala emanzini sait mollusk we Gulf. Nokho, kuye kwaba yilapho jikelele yohwebo inkambiso ekilasini ail engxubeni yamanzi anosawoti amapharele angokwemvelo njengesizathu Oriental

KUBUHLUNGU kakhulu

KUBUHLUNGU kakhulu kuyinto zokugwema ukuthi kwenzeka kanye indiza lobuthakathaka, kunokuba kanye nezindiza ezinemishini yokuthwebula ephambili zifana kuya crystal ubuso, noma kungenzeka

crystal ubhekene, njengasezulwini cleavage (it yaziwa nangokuthi cleavage bamanga)

pearl okusanhlamvu

okusanhlamvu pearl yilona unit standard for pearl enesisindo 1 wokusanhlamvu = 0.25 Carat (1 CT = 4grains)

amaparele

amapharele kukhona izinto ezakhiwe imvelo ethakwa ngengozi ngaphandle kosizo yimuphi nhlangano yabantu, emaqaqasini mollusk. Basuke eyakhiwa nemiyo organic (a scleroprotein ogama lakhe conchiolin) kanye calcium carbonate (ngokuvamile ngesimo aragonite) ahlelwe izingqimba eyindilinga, lo angaphandle zazo lingama nacreous

Pearly

bheka ucwebezela ngendlela ekhangayo

Pegmatites

igneous rock inzuzo emaholo evame equkethe amaminerali ezingavamile, kuhlanganise amakristalu elikhulu ayigugu (isib, ibherule *, chrysoberyl, feldspar, asebenza ngebhethri, spessartite garnet)

Phosphorescence

phosphorescence empeleni ilibele fluorescence (ie, kuba ingemuva). It is ekushayweni waqhubeka okukhanya okubonakalayo emva umthombo emisebeni yokuvuselela liphelile

Photoluminescence

photoluminescence yigama collective for fluorescence kanye phosphorescence. Kuyinto umphumela ezaboniswa izinto ezithile ekukhiqizeni okukhanya okubonakalayo phezu ekuvezweni short nombono emisebeni engenamandla kakhulu (sib: radiations kagesi in the ebonakalayo (blue), ultraviolet x-ray ingxenye spectrum)

obukhomba

izinhlayiya ezincane ezitholakala njengoba inclusions. Lapho lezi zikhona izinombolo ezinkulu zingase yachazwa njengetshe elincane ifu obala itshe kungase ukuphazamiseka kwengqondo

placer deposits

placer deposits kuqukathe ebusweni lokuhlala namaminerali abalulekile ephezulu gravity ethize (ukuqina) okuye ezakhiwe weathering kwedwala umzali, ezimweni eziningi, kamuva yabizwa eyalo umfudlana noma wave isenzo

Plane isimethri

esinye sezici wesimethri; indiza wesimethri kundiza ngengqondo lapho sihlukanisa nomzimba ibe izingxenye ezimbili ukuze ingxenye ngayinye is the ezaziqukethwe (isibuko) umfanekiso enye ingxenye (ie, ingxenye ngayinye iyona ngqo ephambene umfuziselo nezinye)

Plastics

ligama lelivamile eziningi organic izinto ezenziwe umuntu (ngokuvamile ngokuthi i-polymer based resin) okungase extruded noma silolongwe ukushisa kanye / noma ingcindezi

Play of umbala

play term umbala lichaza uchungechunge imibala kubonakala kahle lapho ukukhanya ibonakala kusukela amafilimu mncane noma kusukela ubunye isakhiwo eheleni efana Itshe Eliyigugu eziyigugu. It is ezivezwa umumo womsebenzi (kuphulwa up yokukhanya abamhlophe imibala yayo ingxenye njengoba ukukhanya kudlula a beso encane) elisho ezikhethekile ukugxambukela wokukhanya

Pleochroism

pleochroism (ngokwezwi nezwi, abaningi anemibala) leli gama jikelele lisetshenziselwa ukuchaza imibala ehlukene ohlangothini lapho kungabonakala amatshe athile esinombala esehlukanisa ukukhanya (ie, basuke isibili refracting) ngenxa crystal isakhiwo sabo sangaphakathi. Kuhlanganisa dichroism (ezimbili ezinemibala) kanye trichroism (ezintathu ezinemibala)

Polariscope

the polariscope kuyinto ithuluzi ehlanganisa izilinganiso ezingamakhulu amabili ukwenziwa indiza lihlukaniswe ukukhanya wahlela nge isigaba ligijima phakathi kwabo. Uhlolo Kudivayisi kuphela yini noma cha impahla kuyinto singly noma efe kabili yezokubona

Polariscope yabangela ukusabela okuhlukahlukene

singly yezokubona-mabhodi ehlala amnyama kuyo 360 ° baphendukela. Uma into oyifundayo ngaphansi umthwalo internai kungase ibonise ezingasadingeki (amanga) kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona double (ADR), ngokuvamile ngesimo bands mihlobiso noma nezimagqabhagqabha okungajwayelekile. Double yezokubona-amatshe elaqheshulwa crystal olulodwa abanomthwalo emine ukukhanya futhi ezine izikhundla olumnyama. Crystalline lokubolekwa noma zazihlanganisa ayehlome DR impahla zingavela ail ukukhanya kuyo 360 ° baphendukela. Impambaniso figure-in the case of DR impahla, uma izimo baqinisile futhi i figure Impambaniso ungayibona kuhle kuqashelwe, kungenzeka ukuthola ukuthi itshe uniaxial noma biaxial. (Uphawu-once optic sebemtholile sibalo impambaniso, kuba ke kungenzeka ukuba sinqume ukuthi itshe emihle noma emibi ngosizo

amapuleti accessory ye ihlinzekwa ngokukhethekile ukuthi injongo)

Polycrystalline

amaminerali okuyizinto lokubolekwa amakristalu encane ngokuthi polycrystalline. Lezi zinhlayiya ezincane Kuyabonakala besebenzisa kokukhulisa, futhi ngezinye izikhathi by iso yedwa (isib, cishe ail jadeite jade)

twins Polysynthetic

bheka twins lammelar

Potch (Itshe Eliyigugu ezivamile)

impahla Milky entula play umbala, eyakhiwa silica sphere yobukhulu ukungalingani ngaleyo ndlela ebangela ukukhanya zihlakazekile kunokuba diffracted

inclusions Protogenetic

inclusions nga pre-existing:. lezo babekhona ngaphambi crystal aphethe waqala ukwakha futhi baphilela 'ngomumo eyenziwe' singene sakamuva (isib, izinhlayiya okuqinile kanye amakristalu encane Avame ukuba irregularly ugcwele kulo lonke futhi kuyaqabukela ezihlobene aphethe crystal sika isakhiwo

Pseudomorph

a pseudomorph (ifomu bamanga) iyinhlangano mineral eyabe ifomu (shape) lomunye amaminerali (noma substance organic) ngenxa ukushisa kanye / noma acindezele noma amakhemikhali inqubo, isib, iso tiger sika (asebenza ngebhethri esikhundleni crocidolite, i amaminerali asbestos); izinkuni agathe (a ukuphindisela asebenza ngebhethri ngokhuni)

reflection

reflection iyona ukubuya ngumuntu surface (ngabe internai noma zangaphandle) lwamanye ukukhanya olungena ngalolo surface. Bheka futhi Imithetho Snell sika

kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona

kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona Ushintsho isiqondiso lapho ukukhanya kuhamba lapho isuka komunye abezindaba kwenye ezahlukene kwabantu optical (ngaphandle uma abatelekile ebusweni ezivamile abezindaba ezimbili at 90 °). Njengoba ukukhanya isuka ibe lingandile osebenzelana nemimoya nesisindo esikhudlwana (isib, kusukela emoyeni ku itshe) kuba bent towards evamile, Ngakolunye uhlangothi njengoba isuka ibe nesisindo esikhudlwana osebenzelana nemimoya lingandile it uzimisele kude evamile. inhlanganiso optical impahla eyinkimbinkimbi okubonisa ngokwayo ukwehlisa ijubane lokukhanya. Bheka futhi Imithetho Snell sika

Inkomba yezokubona (RI)

the RI kuyinto isilinganiso elula ngokuqhathanisa ngejubane lokukhanya emoyeni ngejubane lokukhanya in a medium inikezwe. I esezingeni esetshenziswa sokulinganisa Inkomba yezokubona kuyinto emoyeni (amaza cleaner); kanjalo RI emoyeni ngokweqile kubhekwa 1.00

metamorphic Regional

(700 ° -2000 ° C) the recrystallization of okuqukethwe amaminerali yamadwala nga pre-existing at okushisa anda futhi ucindezelekile

kwabantu Isihlobo

Bona gravity ethize (SG)

yamaza residual

yamaza yezinsalela yilawo yamaza hhayi amuncwa impahla obuhlanganisa ukuba asinike umbala perc-eived bento

anenhlaka

Bona ucwebezela ngendlela ekhangayo

Rock

idwala kwakhiwa izinhlayiya yezimbiwa lapho usukhulile noma baye abumbene by yezinqubo zamakhemikhali noma sasondelana ndawonye ukushisa noma ingcindezi

Gcwalisa

libhekisela izinga noma ukujula umbala kubonwe okunje kwa-ukubaniza brilliancy yamatshe esobala faceted

Schiller

Bona sheen

Scintillation

ukucwazimula; nokunikezwa off lemifisha, ukukhanya okukhulu

Sectile

sectile libhekisela materials amandla kokuba axetshuliwe ngokuveza ummese nge cut bushelelezi

rocks sedimentary

labo ezakhiwe ukwakha material (inhlabathi) nesuka ukuwohloka ngokomzimba futhi amakhemikhali yamadwala nga pre-existing at komhlaba

Seed amaparele

amapharele ezincane kakhulu (ngaphansi kuka v. okusanhlamvu / ngu. 2mm) ukuthi ngokuvamile kwakheka izicubu zomzimba ezithambile we silwanyana ngenxa ye ayehlasela zesihlabathi, amaqanda khulula ezintantayo, izimuncagazi noma kweminye imizimba angaphandle. Seed amaparele kukhona ngokuvamile okungamukelekile flat, kodwa lapho ezingavamile abathandekayo nxazonke zitholakala, bahlukene out for ukusetshenziswa ubucwebe. Bheka futhi Keshi amaparele

ukumuncwa okukhethwayo

ukumuncwa abakhethayo Amandla okukhanya ukucindezelwa noma ukumuncwa yamaza ezithile Ukudlula ekukhanyeni ngokusebenzisa into ethile noma ayeveza off ubuso bayo. Umbala imiphumela impahla kusukela asele (residual) yamaza ukuthi afinyelele iso

Sheen (noma Schiller)

sheen kuyinto anombala ocwazimulayo noma ngokukhukhumala kwentamo (welulele) reflection umphumela okubangelwa ukukhanya okubonakaliswa kusukela inclusions noma izici zokwakheka emiSebenzini itshe. Igama elithi kuhlanganisa chatoyancy, asterism, adularescence, aventurescence, opalescence, iridescence (labrodrescence kanye play umbala Itshe Eliyigugu)

Silk (iinthombe)

uchungechunge izinaliti esihle parallel (njalo rutile)

yezokubona Single

okubhekiselwa kuzo nangokuthi isotropic. namaminerali adingwa abonise ezifanayo kodwa ngesikhathi esifanayo optical ndlela ail (isib, amatshe ohlelweni cubic kanye material amorphous)

Imithetho Snell sika of kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona

lapho ray ukukhanya isuka komunye medium iye kolunye kukhona isilinganiso esiqondile phakathi sine we engela kwesifo kanye sine engela of kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona. I ray senzakalo, ray refracted kanye evamile (ngilungele kwesifo) kukhona ail indiza efanayo. Isilinganiso njalo phakathi engela kwesifo kanye kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona lanoma iyiphi imidiya ezimbili in contact optical sasibizwa Snell index yezokubona (RI)

South Sea amaparele

amaparele giant cultured, cultured esiliva-lipped pearl oysters nge ububanzi 12 noma ngisho 16mm. Lezi amapharele big white wathola igama South Sea ngoba ekuqaleni ezivezwa Japanese in Microne-sia kanye Indonesia. Namuhla lezi amaparele akhiqizwa njalo e-Australia futhi eBurma, ne-Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea naseMicronesia Thailand njengoba imithombo ezingabalulekile kangako. Kuze kube manje akubanga khona yimpumelelo yokufakelwa iqoqo wathifela sesiliva-lipped pearl oyster, okusho ukuthi ukuphakelwa kukagesi endaweni oysters umama sincane kantsi amanani ngokufanele high

amandla adonsela phansi Specific (SG)

SG noma isihlobo kwabantu elinama iyona lihlela isilinganiso phakathi kwama isisindo into isisindo umqulu alinganayo ngamanzi acwebileyo at 4 ° C (inhlanganiso kwamanzi esiphezulu) kanye ngomfutho standard yesimo sezulu esibi. SG lihlobene ukubunjwa amakhemikhali impahla kanye kunenze nisondelane inter-atomic clock (empeleni, lokhu kuthonywa hhayi kuphela ngenxa yesisindo athomu izakhi ezahlukene uphiko kodwa indlela lapho athomu ezibekwe ndawonye)

spectroscope

ithuluzi ohlukanisa wokukhanya ukukhanya kungene yamaza yayo labo ababamele noma imibala spectrum esebenzisa nezibhebhe noma umumo womsebenzi nehele. I spectroscope ovumela umuntu ukuba abone yiziphi izigaba letsite (imigqa noma bands) noma ezindaweni (ukumuncwa ezibanzi) yokukhanya amhlophe amuncwa enetshe by nizihlakaza noma ukwelula yamaza asalile okuye ngocansi noma ayeveza kusuka itshe ngaphansi kovivinyo (hhayi ail amatshe khombisa spectrum hhayi ail spectrums ezibonwayo zokuxilonga kodwa ukumuncwa bands kungase kubonise Umbala ejenti noma ukuba khona izakhi ezithile)

Splintery

bheka ukwa

wesimethri

wesimethri libhekisela ohlangeni njalo noma ibhalansi ukuma gem kokubili isikhundla ubuso-up and in profile

inclusions Syngenetic

inclusions owayephila ngesikhathi ehlanganisa izinto okuyinto banikezwe ngesikhathi esifanayo njengoba crystai aphethe (isib, ukudla okuqinile okumbiwa phansi; uketshezi in izimbotshana futhi ephulukisa imifantu; bands zonal, inclusions liquid. iminonjana sokukhula ezifana nombala nokuklanywa futhi kumiswa twin Kukhona njalo i wayala intergrowth phakathi inclusions syngenetic umkhosi crystal kangangokuthi bobabili ukuba athwale nobuhlobo zesakhiwo ilawulwa imithetho crystallographic

namatshe ayigugu zokwenziwa

zokwenziwa umkhiqizo ngendlela efanayo amakhemikhali ukwakheka, isakhiwo atomic Izakhiwo njengoba sabafowabo zemvelo (isib, zokwenziwa Emerald, zokwenziwa corundum, njll)

ukuphikelela

ukuphikelela noma ubunzima kuyinto ukumelana a gem breaking noma aphuke. It is esihlobene namaminerali ikhono lokwamukela uthuthumele ngaphandle ukuphazamiseka isakhiwo internai. Imigomo wahlangana ne kule ndaba zihlanganisa ziyaqothuka, sectile, oluthambile, nezimo futhi nokunwebeka

films Thin

wayebheka ngaphansi ukukhanya ayeveza lezi films mncane banesibopho ukubukeka enhlobonhlobo ejwayelekile ungqimba ezondile amafutha namanzi noma ebusweni emibalabala bubble insipho

Three isigaba iinthombe

umgodi ugcwale uketshezi-oqukethe bubble kanye crystal

Tone

ukukhalayo libhekisela lightness isihlobo noma ubumnyama okucatshangelwayo (loba abe luhlaza noma elimhlophe black)

Imininingwane reflection yangaphakathi

reflection Imininingwane yangaphakathi kwenzeka lapho a, ray kusishiya ukukhanya okwakuvela luthe ukuqina osebenzelana nemimoya lingandile engela njengengcebo enkulu kunemicebo angle esibucayi ebuyiselwa medium luthe ukuqina lapho ke owulalelayo imithetho ka reflection

ubunzima

bheka ukuphikelela

izakhi Transition

yigama elisebenza izakhi ezithile metallic okuyinto ngenxa isakhiwo sabo yama-athomu, ukusebenza ukumuncwa abakhethayo yokukhanya ngamatshe idiochromatic kanye allochromatic. Ziyakwazi chrome, ayibe, ithusi, vanadium, manganese, insimbi, nickel futhi titanium

Dlulisa

ukuze kudlule (isib, ukukhanya) kusukela komunye medium kwenye; ukuba ithumele (isib, a signal) noma uthumele kwi (e..g., kusukela komunye umuntu kuya kwesinye)

Transparency

the inkululeko ngazo ukukhanya uphasile noma ngobulili ngokusebenzisa itshe. I ngamazinga ahlukene obala zinikwa njengoba: esobala (TP) -a intfo esobala libonakalisa futhi zimuncwe esincane ukukhanya kwelanga phezu kwayo, kodwa kuvumela kakhulu ukuba adabule. Intfo zibhekwa itshe livela ecacile futhi abahlukene. Sub-esobala (S-TP) -okungamasonto esiningi ukukhanya idluliselwa ngokusebenzisa itshe, kodwa kuphela uhlaka bento ngakolunye uhlangothi itshe asikwazi ayevelele. Sub-ayevumela (S-TL) -only esincane kakhulu ukukhanya kudlulele ngalé Igugu at emaphethelweni mncane. Opaque (0) -ail ukukhanya olungena ungene intfo opaque kungenzeka ayeveza noma amuncwa. Ayikho ukukhanya sidlula impahla, ngisho imiphetho mncane.

Treacle iinthombe

ukushisa-wave noma roiled umphumela-wisps kanye swirls of umbala

Twin crystal

crystal twin kuyinto crystal okuyinto yakhiwa ezimbili neengcezu of the crystal efanayo noma zinhlayiya ezimbili noma ngaphezulu uhlobo olufanayo lapho babe nobuhlobo crystallographic ngqo komunye nomunye futhi usukhulile ndawonye ngendlela ziyalingana (bheka imininingwane amawele namawele interpenetrant)

Two isigaba iinthombe

umgodi ugcwale uketshezi-oqukethe bubble noma crystal

Ultraviolet (UV)

ultraviolet kusho ngaphesheya violet. Lokhu uhla emisebeni iqala nge yamaza ukuthi zimfushane ukwedlula 400nm of violet ukukhanya

amatshe Uniaxial

e eziyisithupha, trigonal futhi tetragonal crystal izinhlelo kukhona oyedwa optic eksisi eqonde ngqo (isiqondiso kwalungiswa izinkunga zokubona single): namaminerali okuqondene lwalezi nhlelo zaziwa ngokuthi ama uniaxial (ematsheni uniaxial eksisi optic kuhambisana lo mpo oyinhloko 'c' e-eksisi)

Unit cell

unit cell crystal isakhiwo esingagcina okuyingxenye kencani a crystal okuyinto namanje possesses izindawo sici crystal okubizwa ngokuthi unit cell. Indlela unit amaseli zibekwa ngumama ngokwemvelo inquma ukubukeka kwangaphandle crystal

iinthombe Veil

bheka feather iinthombe

okukhanya okubonakalayo

ukukhanya ebonakalayo kuwuhlobo zamandla akhishwa imisebe yalo lapho kuphakamisa lokujabulela emehlweni. Noma yimuphi nombono emisebeni kagesi okungukuthi cishe phakathi 400nm futhi 700nm iyabonakala iso womuntu njengoba ukukhanya

Vitreous

bheka ucwebezela ngendlela ekhangayo

nombono

inamandla kuchazwa njengoba ibanga phakathi iziqongo ezimbili zilandelana ukuthi wave

waxy

bheka ucwebezela ngendlela ekhangayo

ukukhanya White

ukukhanya white (ukukhanya exubile) yakhiwa ingxube cishe alinganayo yonke imibala noma yamaza ezakha spectrum ebonakalayo (obomvu, osawolintshi, ophuzi, oluhlaza, blue and violet). Umbala ukukhanya siyahlukahluka kuxhomeke nombono. amagagasi Red babe yamaza omude kunayo yonke (700 + NM) futhi lokhu siyehla ngokusebenzisa spectrum ukuba violet banemibono, okuyinto babe lemfisha (400nm-mayelana 1 / 4 ubude wale misebe abomvu)

window

indawo esobala ongaphakeme umbala okujula okubangelwa ukuvuza ukukhanya okuvumela ngemuva ngemuva itshe ukuze kubonakale (funda ngokusebenzisa umphumela)

zircon Halo

bheka iinthombe Halo

striae ngokwezindawo

bheka umbala bands

iphutha: Okuqukethwe evikelwe !!